Important release about nicotine addiction. - *E-Cigtest, the ultimate electronic cigarettes review site and forum* Le site de la cigarette électroniqueTranslated by Google.
I invite you to read this very important release of the National Center for Scientific Research in welcoming the move the courage of the team of Professor Jean-Pol Tassin,
Paris, 23 January 2009
Smoking cessation: how effective substitutes for nicotine?
Nicotine is generally regarded as the main component responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Yet, a research team from the CNRS and the College de France directed by Jean Pol Tassin, director of research at Inserm has to prove that nicotine alone is not enough to trigger a state of dependency among smokers. Other compounds in tobacco are needed to reveal the addictive power. This discovery also explains why nicotine substitutes used in smoking cessation are ineffective in the long term.
This work has been published in the advance online edition of the Journal of Neuroscience.
Without being associated with certain components of tobacco, nicotine is not addictive. The main result from the research conducted by Jean Pol Tassin is a further step towards understanding the mechanisms of drug dependence.
Over the past two years (1), this team of researchers has shown that drugs such as ......., amphetamines, morphine, alcohol or even lead to a separation (or "decoupling") between two sets of neurons, noradrenergic and serotonergic (2). The first set is to develop external events, the other to control impulses. Dependents feel environmental stimuli in a more intense (including the desire of the product) and lose the ability to control their impulses. Under normal circumstances, these neural circuits to control each other. But the disconnect between the two leads to an imbalance that seems responsible for the process of addiction, the dependent person can no longer restrain his attraction to the product.
It is that nicotine, unlike other drugs, does not decoupling. To try to understand why smoking has, however, a very strong addictive potential, researchers are interested in other compounds. In this new work, scientists demonstrated that the combination of nicotine with other products in tobacco, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which leads to this decoupling. Specifically, they show that MAOIs can be addictive properties of nicotine because they nullify the action of natural protection that serotonergic neurons have vis-à-vis the nicotine: the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A . The effect of nicotine on the release of serotonin is so intense that happens in fractions of seconds a "feedback control", which then blocked the release of serotonin. This phenomenon of "retro control" is possible only when the 5-HT1A receptors play their protective role. Without this protection, serotonergic neurons are activated by nicotine, they decouple and trigger the process of addiction.
"80% of users of nicotine patches to resume smoking"
In conclusion of this work, the authors explain why the current therapies fail to stop smoking in many cases. Among candidates for quitting smoking, chewing gum and patches are effective at the beginning of treatment, as the effects of persistent MAOI. But after a few weeks of weaning the absence of tobacco (and thus WAMI), permits the return of natural protection. Nicotine alone is not enough as a substitute.
For Jean Pol Tassin "This work could help improve the approaches to treatment of nicotine dependence. They also call into question the effectiveness of current products alternative to tobacco and to understand why, in more than 80% of cases, users of patches and chewing nicotine gum to resume smoking after just a few weeks. A new composition combining nicotine products and blocking the natural protection from 5-HT1A receptors would be effective as an alternative to tobacco. This could be used in a new strategy in the therapy of withdrawal. "
1] A new mechanism explaining the drug
2] These neurons synthesize and release of norepinephrine and serotonin. Two neurotransmitters that contribute to the first to regulate attention, emotions, sleep, dreams and learning and the second at various functions such as temperature, sleep, mood, appetite and pain
So it seems that it's not nicotine that some of us miss when we get cravings, it's a combination of chemicals. Raising nicotine intake won't help with that, it'll just raise tolerance or cause illness.
"80% of users of nicotine patches resume smoking" Will this happen with us?
Would it help if we could dose ourselves with harmine?