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  1. As some topics keep coming up, the same questions asked, I find that many questions are asked repeatedly , so I decided to turn this into a collection that will hopefully help others and save time.

    Sadly, some of these items are constantly debated by people that do not either have a grasp on the subject but yet think themselves "knowledgeable", or have their "information" from a friend of a friend scenario. Even worse, these people tend to flock together, are rude, present "information" that is twisted, manipulate, or half truth.

    I will leave the comments opened as I'm happy to take suggestions and comments, but unless you have actual proof that I might have made a mistake, I am happy to discuss but not debate as I am interested in facts, correct information and not mere opinions.

    I will be taking some text from posts that I've made already, as why retype the same info all over again. (but will adjust accordingly)

    This blog is a work in progress and I'll be editing my main texts as I think of things I might have missed or to reorganize the information.

    So far (a quick listing)
    Cf11 likes this.
  2. As I see lots of people ask about it, and most answers are "this is how I set mine" or long winded semi-explanations, I think this should help.

    First, a simple explanation:
    Temperature control works due to two things.
    1) the metal used will change resistance (ohms) as it gets hotter.
    2) how much this resistance changes is used to calculate how hot that coil is getting.

    This is called a TCR (Temperature Coefficient of Resistance). The metals used in TC are metals that this change is enough to be measured. (these metals are NI, TI, and SS)

    Basically: TC is a setting, a cut-off for the mod to switch from full stable power output to pulsing the power to keep the output at what you set it to be.

    So, now the math: (examples only for explanation purposes only)

    So if your coil is cold (room temp of 70F) and is read at 0.5 ohm, then your mod takes this as the "start" value.

    The TCR values being (from TCR):

    Temperature °F SS 316L / Elite
    -100 0.447901
    0 0.479957
    70 0.500556
    200 0.536667
    400 0.585778
    600 0.629107
    800 0.668483

    So that means that when the resistance of your coil has changed to 0.536667ohm, then it figures that it must be 200F.

    That said:
    TC is about a SETTING, it is NOT an absolute. This does NOT mean that the vapor will be at this temperature.

    There's a LOT of things to consider, such as airflow, the wicking, the build, the original ohm reading, etc. that will effect your results.

    So you could have one coil in one tank/deck that could feel nice and warm at a certain setting for example:

    0.5ohm, at 50W, and set at 380F and it would be perfect for you, the vapor would be nice and warm and the flavour coming through nicely.

    You could have another build/coil at 0.2ohm, at 45W, and set at 290F and would be the exact same experience.

    So what now, as that still doesn't make sense to me:


    Simply that as I stated, TC is about being a setting.

    This setting is a "cut off" for the mod to stop pushing the full power (wattage) and start pulsing it so to keep the coil at this setting that you gave it.

    So let's say that you like the vapor's heat at 400F (at 45W) with a 0.5 ohm coil.

    So every time that the coil's resistance hits (for example) 0.585778 ohm, it follows your settings and stops the power and then starts pulsing to keep the resistance at 0.585778 (or as close to it).

    So does that mean I might be vaping lava hot steam?

    No, it means that you have set your mod to respond to this change in ohm/resistance.

    You will know right away if you've set it too high as:

    • it'll be too hot, you won't enjoy it at all.
    • the liquid can only get so hot before it's vaporized into an aerosol, so that extra heat is going to heat up the air too, making it quite hot.
    • the wicking may not be able to keep up, so the coil dries out, becomes very hot very fast, BUT the mod will see this and cut the power off right away.
    THIS is why TC is great at preventing dry hits, it sees that the jump in the TCR is too high too fast and will stop the power output as it will see that you're hitting your "setting" way too fast.

    And again, this does NOT mean that your vapor is at the temperature that you've set, it means that the coil's resistance value has changed to the extent that you've set it at. If the vapor was that hot, everyone would be burning off their mouths... normally, the vapor is estimated at around 150-250C as it's heading up the chimney but cooled off very fast due to the airflow but since inhaling very hot steam would result in damage and pain, we can estimate that by the time it hits our mouth, it's much cooler, from what I can find, the hottest that most people could tolerate is around approximately 60 C /140F (and that might be quite high/hot).

    Let me put it this way... at 150C (302F) and higher, you're off to the hospital for serious burns and damage (Smoke Inhalation Lung Injury: An Update)

    What about the whole wattage thing?

    Well, the wattage is the power output.

    Some mods will not let you set it, you'll have a "soft / normal / hard / max" setting, which means that the mod will calculate (according to how it's been programmed) how much wattage to push to reach that TC setting that you give it.

    Other mods lets you set a maximum wattage, (and some have pre-heat settings to kick extra wattage to heat the coil's initial firing). This setting of the wattage is on a curve, where it's going to push up to this wattage UNLESS it reaches the TC setting first.

    So basically, the wattage is "how fast it heats up to that TC value". That said, it's not always a good idea to try and kick a mod to go at 200W for a TC of 300F, it might be too fast and the wicking might not be able to flow that instantly... Better to have a balanced approach to it.

    Many large screen mods will actually show you what's going on.. you'll be able to see the wattage going up at the same time that the Temp goes up. You might see that even if you set your mod at 70W, it might never even go over 30W.

    So what now? How do I set my mod?

    Well, it's simple, regardless of your resistance or build:

    • Start low (both in wattage and TC)
    • Increase the TC first until you find the setting that you like.
    • If you're having trouble with reaching a nice warmth level, start increasing your wattage
    • Go with increments of 5 to 10 Watts /degrees (either F or C)
    With practice, you should be able to have a good starting point, but note that this is different for any coil/tank/deck that you might be using, so NEVER go with "recommended" settings from someone else.

    Even factory coils cannot be trusted, and I would recommend to always stay under 10 to 20W at least from the "maximum" rating of any of these coil (especially the larger sub-ohms ones in particular).

    One last thing, what about DNA chip or Chinese mod?

    Basically, they do the same thing.

    My personal experience with a DNA chip wasn't the greatest, I've fiddled with the settings for many days to get it working properly as out of the box, it was terrible. I know that there's lots of fans of the DNA chips that will state how better it is, for me, it just wasn't the case. The best thing about it is the EScribe software that lets you monitor your vaping/mod "live" and that you really can mess with just about everything. Thanks to the headaches, the odds of me ever buying another DNA mod are slim.

    The Chinese mods (Eleaf, SMOK, Joytech, Innokin) that I have, have all worked just fine right out of the box. The only issues I've had is having to learn that wire mass can affect the mod's capacity to read the TCR (of SS)...more about that is covered in another post in my blog.


    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    opticruby, sonicbomb and Boompumper like this.
  3. For anyone that wants to use tanks with cartridge coils, I always recommend tanks that are part of a shared design.

    I know that the SMOK beast coils have become part of such, with Eleaf and a few other makers of tanks have started adopting their coils to be cross-compatible.

    But here I am going to focus on the Atlantis type cartridge "family"... it's a design that is very proven, as several companies have been making these cartridge coils that are near identical, which gives you a huge selection of types thanks to this. Please note that some of these have started "mini" versions of their tanks and some of these uses different coils.

    The tanks I recommend are:

    Eleaf:
    • Melo 2 (sliding door for top fill is probably the best design in any tank)
    • Melo 3 (top fill is screw top)
    • iJust (bottom fill)
    Aspire:
    • Triton (V1 is a lock to close flow and pop-off top, excellent design, very easy, nice metal cage tank. V2, the metal cage was removed and the top is now a screw-top, I prefer V1)
    Freemax:
    • Scylla (push and twist top fill, neat approach, works well, and you can get an kit version that comes with an RTA, which isn't the greatest but still, it's something to test out if you want to go with RTAs)

    For coils, there's a long list, but the beauty is that most are cross compatible, here's a list of other tanks that I didn't mention here and how compatible they are: https://goo.gl/r54pW0 (and below is a sample of the listing in case this link disappears or is broken)

    Here's a quick list of SOME of the cross-compatible tanks (the most popular ones).
    Note that there are many more.

    Aspire: Atlantis / Atlantis EVO / Atlantis Mega / Atlantis V2 / Triton (X) / Triton 2 (X)
    Eleaf: iJust2 (X) / Melo / Melo2 (X) / Melo lll (and mini) (X) / Lemo 3
    Freemax: Scylla (X) / Starre (X) / Starre Pro (X)
    Sense Tech: Herakles (X)
    Vaporesso: Gemini Tank (X) / ORC Vape Tank (X) / Target Ceramic cCell Tank (X) / Target Pro (X)

    (X) tanks doesn’t use the threads for the top of the cartridge

    My preference are the Vaperaso ceramic, which I end up taking apart and rebuilding

    Note: all of these coils are near identical and are easily taken apart and can be rebuilt, and to be honest, every one of the rebuilds Ive done are better than factory made.

    I support them enough that I made an image guide about them: Vaperrasso cCell rebuilding
    Note that while I show the Vaperasso cCell, all the other brands are the same except that they use a single shell design that requires a "barrier" instead of using capillary action like the dual shell design of the cCell does.

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Kaimaikid and Teach like this.
  4. I'm re-hashing text I wrote a while back and belongs in a blog instead of where I had it.

    Simply: The whole diacetyl thing... if that would be a problem, you'd be dead already if you ever smoked cigarettes.

    Cigarettes has HUNDREDs of times more diacetyl and every other chemical that the witch hunt is using to scare people with. But you don't hear that in the news, do you? Ever heard of a single smoker getting popcorn lungs?

    What started it all?
    It was the court case of the pop-corn factory, where the word diacetyl was "the scary big word" that the lawyers used over and over, and even with NO scientific proof that it was the "guilty" chemical, (and not the other dozens of other chemicals these people inhaled at extremely high levels, plus the fact that they were heavy smokers), the word stuck and any mention of it is an instant association to the pop-corn lung scenario.

    What is the actual situation?
    There is nothing, not one thing so far, after over 10 years, that has been showed, reported, etc. to be any sort of recognized and proven health issue with vaping. There is yet to be a single proven and solid scientific result about it causing any harm at all and it's been around in food for decades.

    Every case of anything relating to popcorn lung or such is always linked to studies and such that always state the word "possible" and usually include a huge lists of other possible chemicals, circumstances, etc. Not a single conclusive confirmation. The only thing in common that I've seen/read about about anyone that suffered from this is that they smoked a lot and were exposed to a lot of chemicals at extremely high levels.

    Not one... nope, not a single person admitted to the hospital, treated, found to have any ailment from anything that has to do with vaping.

    (I had one member in here stating that his father ended up with this "popcorn lung disease" due to smoking, in a thread discussing the topic, but as this disease is noted to be caused by infection and other criteria, when I tried to ask for more info, he simply disappeared from the thread.)

    Worse than that, I've seen that there's been some studies lately that are being worked on that are showing possibilities that vaping is actually helping people fight lung infections, so on top of everything, vaping might actually be healthy for you.

    What's in vaping liquid, unless you're getting it in an alley in the back of a truck, there should never be more than 4 things... PG, VG, flavouring, nicotine, the last two being optional, all of them tested and used for decades and proven to have absolutely no ill effect, unless the person has a sensitivity (allergy) to it... and even then, it's just a bit of an irritation, yet to hear anything more than a discomfort or such.

    Now I'm not saying that it's impossible that something could have some effect in time, but at this point, it's simply been blown out of proportion. We have many thousands of vapers that's been vaping for close or over 10 years with not a single health issue relating to their vaping and the content of the liquids..

    Don't believe me? here's some links:

    The Truth About Diacetyl - Mt Baker Vapor
    Popcorn Lung & E-Cigs: The Truth About Diacetyl
    Should vapers be concerned about vaping diacetyl? - Vaping360


    What is the status of diacetyl and other "chemicals"?

    Well, the propaganda has died down about it at this point as after a few more years later, there is still not a single case of "popcorn lung" (or any other confirmable ill effect) via vaping that has happened.

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    DPLongo22, BrotherBob and JoeMischief like this.
  5. First I must state the disclaimer that we do not know the range of how "safe" vaping is to an absolute. I'm going with info that I've read about from reliable sources throughout the last few years, but I didn't bookmark them at the time otherwise I'd post the links here. I will post a few that I do have.

    That said: vaping is NOT 95% safer, it is AT LEAST 95% (actually it's now more like 1% now, see below)

    That 5% was about "unknown possibilities" (and partly about nicotine). It could be 5% but it could be 0.0000001%, and the more science coming through and the more test done... the more that percentage shrinks.

    That original 5% number it was only given as a "safety" margin.

    There's been more research and new data since the UK's Royal College of Physicians original report.

    This relates to:
    1. the potential that nicotine isn't as addictive as always believed as there's starting to find that it's a combination of the other chemicals in cigarettes that enhances this dependency.

      And most long term smokers can tell you that even with nicotine to almost overdose levels, they still go through withdrawals, and then later on, they tend to lower the nicotine level more and more and ween themselves off it completely... something that if it was the nicotine only, no one would be able to manage it.

    2. research about the potential that vaping might actually be "good" to fight off infection, as PG IS an actual anti-bacterial agent.

      This jives with what I've seen... my wife would get pneumonia 2-3 times a year (she has MS, so prone to lung infections, plus the smoking didn't help) and since vaping, she's had 1 or 2 in nine years.I've had a other few people reporting very similar experiences
    3. vaping has been around for a longer time than most realize... so there's plenty of example / test subjects
    4. PG has been used since the 1950s in many ways, including as an aerosol in hospital to "clean" the air (anti-bacterial properties)... via the air systems. There is a long of historical research done to back the effects of PG and VG on living tissue, including animal research since the 50s... which is why it's 100% approved by all health institution as regarded as completely safe.
    5. More research was done lately looking at the affect from exposure in lung tissue.

      Here a link to one of these studies: Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air

      It's not one of the ones that I've read before (I should have bookmarked them) but the point is the same. They found no DNA mutation, no effect, etc. Basically, no difference between the lung exposed to vape compared to regular air we breathe...

      In other words, walking next to cars on a busy street is worse than vaping.

    In conclusion (for now)

    New reports about this "5%"
    (my thanks to another member for providing me with these links real quick)

    The second link is a direct link to a PDF document found in the first link, pertaining to that 95% thing we started with, and states: that it is now regarded as below that, even stating 1% or less (already!).

    " The estimate that e-cigarette use is around 95% safer than smoking is based on the facts that:

    1. the constituents of cigarette smoke that harm health including carcinogens are either absent in e-cigarette vapour or, if present, they are mostly at levels much below 5% of smoking doses (mostly below 1% and far below safety limits for occupational exposure)
    2. the main chemicals present in e-cigarettes only have not been associated with any serious risk"

    And what about second hand vapor?

    Here you go:
    • Solving the myths of Second Hand Vapor

      Here's a sample of their conclusion if you don't want to click: "Currently, new bans are going up all over the place, and now in National Parks, but the reality is, the big RV that’s driving through Yellowstone, will be harming the air you breathe far more than anyone who is using an electronic cigarette. Yes, we know e-cigarettes are safer for the environment (not to mention how much less trash is created, and fewer trees cut down) but in the second-hand sense, they are even less harmful than what you breathe when you are parked in traffic or pumping gas into your car."
    • Is second hand vapor harmful? - Vaping360

      Lots of links to studies, but again, here's their conclusion (sample): "But there is no proven health risk to secondhand vapor. Despite what the paranoid proponents of denormalization say, there is no vape smoke. That said, we still face adoption of laws that make it illegal for private businesses to allow vaping on their premises, which implies that there is some danger to secondhand e-cig vapor."

    The whole diacetyl thing.... I've done a separate blog about that, go read it if interested.



    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    DPLongo22, Kris10 and opticruby like this.
  6. Batteries are to be very respected, if the wrap or the top insulating ring are damaged, stop using the battery and fix it.

    The "standard" 18650 are a bit of odd man out, as you need to know that there's so many variants.

    First: never buy the crappy re-wrapped third party brands, only go with the manufacturers, such as LG, Sony, Samsung, Panasonic/Sanyo.

    ALL other brands are getting the rejected but still useable batteries that they re-brand under their name and then make insane claims about the capacity.

    Added note: Aspire now have a battery plant, so that does make them a bit better, at least it's an actual brand, but their quality is still debatable. They appear to be acceptable but I'll see Mooch's confirmation about them before I'd give them my approval... I know that I did get some a while back and my observation was that none of the Aspire batteries were reliable, some lasted much longer than others, so a married set would be out of the question if their quality is random.

    Second: be aware that the 18650 are not all made the same. There is low drain and high drain types. For mods, we HAVE to use HIGH drain (high A power, limited life). The low drain ones are for low power devices (low A power, long life) such as flashlights.

    There is no high drain 18650 that is over 25-30A capable, nor has over 3,000mAh of capacity.

    Some low drain have a safety cap that would make them a bit longer.

    Edit: I have to re-emphasize that low drain batteries are meant for low power units such as flashlights or to be in parallel packs (such as computers, power tools), as some of the stubborn members have been stating that they support using such batteries for lower wattage mods, and cannot understand that the chemistry inside these batteries are not made to withstand the repeated high hits in wattage that vaping requires.

    Third: the way these (and just about all cylinder batteries) are built is that they are a closed cylinder that's filled from the top, and sealed by a very thin insulator.

    This means that the whole of the battery's walls is all negative until you get to the top where the positive pin is. The positive/negative is separated by this very thin insulator, which should you cause a contact between them, you would short out the battery.

    So for safety, this area where this insulator/separation is, is covered by a insulation ring, either thick paper or plastic. The wrap is what holds it in place and protects the battery.

    Should the wrap be damaged, especially at the top where this ring is, the battery should be set aside until the wrap is replaced with a new one. Same goes even more for the ring.

    Should you made contact and short the battery, do NOT hold on to it, you must throw it or put it down somewhere safe, a metal sink, in the grass, or anywhere should it go into thermal overload (or runaway) that no one gets armed or damage done. I've read about people throwing their batteries out the window into their backyard (and such).

    Battery being shorted/overloaded can do two things:
    1. The lesser is called "venting" where it overloads and heats up enough to cause a release valve built into the battery to break (as a safety breaker) and the overheated chemicals will "steam" out of the battery.... it's not good, but it's the safety feature to prevent....discard the battery in an environment friendly way... do NOT use again.

    2. The second: Thermal runaway... which is the full firecracker and "boom" effect...after the special effect and hopefully no damage or injuring, discard as per stated.
    So if you plan to ever carry ANY batteries around, you should ALWAYS have them in a protective container or anything to insulate them from anything that may come in contact with them, such as silicone sleeves

    About charging

    Having a good charger is best, but with a decent mod that has a good charging circuit, it is quite fine.

    Many stay with the old belief that mods do not charge correctly and repeat the dated "never charge with the mod", but the truth is, I've yet to hear of a single mod having issues due to charging. The odds of any such troubles, are very similar to a charger having a malfunction.

    Of course, if you're using a very old mod, it might be questionable, but I have sealed mods from 3-4 years ago that are still working fine... note that any sealed mods (non-replaceable batteries) don't have any alternative ways to charge anyways. Odds are that the batteries will be the part that will fail before the mod's charging circuits does.

    Manufacturers of mods, would not be adding this feature if they hadn't tested and insuring that it was safe, otherwise they'd be at the end of constant lawsuits and the news would be hitting the web quite fast.

    Regulated mods use charging circuits similar to cell phones, they are set for a specific level of power, either 0.5, 1 or now even 2 A.

    Note that the faster you charge a battery will impact it's overall lifespan. In part, this is due to the heat generated from the charging, the cooler the battery, the better for it, always. Most chargers can start at 1/0.7A and separate the output down to 0.5A.

    Regardless of wall adapter, the mod will only use what it's rated for (or up to it), so if you have a mod that charges at 1A:

    0.5A wall adapter = mod charges at 0.5A
    1A wall adapter = mod charges at 1A
    2A wall adapter = mod charges at 1A

    Same if you have a newer mod that charges at 2A

    0.5A wall adapter = mod charges at 0.5A
    1A wall adapter = mod charges at 1A
    2A wall adapter = mod charges at 2A

    But again, the faster you charge a battery, the hotter it will get and the lesser the lifespan of the battery (less recharging cycles).

    I won't get into more specifics as you can check out Mooch's blog (he's easy to find) as he is the most regarded expert online.

    And if you have an adapter that gets really hot, to say it simply: get another one. Adapters are built to provide their rated power output safely. A cheap one has sub-par quality parts and might be risking to use with ANY device. Stick with reputed brands.

    And yes, charging via your computer's USB port is fine, and will not cause issue like some believe. If your port goes bad over charging a device, it is because the port would have failed regardless of what you plugged in it. Computer ports (USB 2.0) output 0.5A.

    I've used several adapters, my computers for many years and I've yet to have a single issue, regardless of the power output. I tend to use lower power due that I prefer to charge my devices slowly (so 0.5 and 1A power output).

    I charge just about all of mine via the mod and it's never been an issue, when I tested the batteries "in case" due to all the paranoia that so many have about it, I found that the batteries were just fine. I even take some batteries that have only been charged all their "lives" in my mod (Eleaf TC100W, which is a parallel), and at least several months. When I did a voltage test at discharge and they were on the spot, perfectly aligned/married still, and they charged just fine on my charger (and now back in a mod).

    I also have monitored the power flow to my mods during charging, and even when I vape while plugged in, found that the power flow doesn't change, so the charging circuit appears to split the power, so the "bypass" allows one (mod) to be using the power both to fire the mod and charge simultaneously. I can't confirm this is the situation for all mods, but all the ones I have and tested appear to function as such. I know that some believe that the power gets switched from charging to firing the mod, or to stop the charging and draw from the battery at the firing, but I've yet to see evidence of this.

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Winblows, opticruby and sonicbomb like this.
  7. First, safety: Nickel (NI/NI200) or Titanium (TI), NEVER heat those up outside of temp control.... if you use these metals and the coil gets dirty, throw them out and build new ones.

    If you have Khantal (KH) or Stainless (SS), you can dry heat them up but never go beyond a dull red while pulsing, otherwise the metal can and will oxidize and it's not good.

    So if you plan to clean a KH or SS coil, it's simply a case of removing the wick, rinse under gently running water (making sure that you aren't getting water on your mod), pulse the power bit by bit, rinse and repeat until the coil is clean.

    The goal is to burn the gunk off without making your coil go too red. If the gunk is stuck, use ceramic tweezers or similar to strum the coil like a guitar string, gently, just to make the pieces of burnt gunk come/fall off.

    Do NOT use flammable liquids or substances such as alcohol.

    Using a torch/flame on the coil is also not good. I did some tests, and you can't heat the wire evenly, can cause it to become brittle, overheating it is very easy (so it oxidizes). It's a lot better to use your mod (or if you get a tester that can heat the coil that's even better) to dry heat the coil.

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    opticruby and LeeLee26 like this.
  8. The trick to good wicking is to have good wick with straight fibers, and knowing how thick and long you need to put in.

    Note: This guide concentrate on cotton, but even other type of wick is technically the same, except that you may need to make it tighter and use a larger thickness due that while cotton swells as it's saturated, other type of wick material such as hemp (that I'll use once in a while) or rayon(which I've yet to try) stays the same (no swelling) or even shrink a bit. More on this later.

    It should be firm going in the coil, but not overly tight at all, you need it to be fluffy, touching the whole coil across. The length should provide you with a bit of fluff at the end of the coil before going down (like a tiny bit of it going up first before going down) to the liquid feed. For most tanks, you should only have the tips going in, so to create a "suction" that pulls the liquid onto the fibers.

    The ends should be cut firmly and clean. The goal is to fill the liquid intake holes and block them to prevent flooding or leakage, BUT without having too much as that would clog/block the feed/wicking.

    If you are using the square pads, just look up videos about "Scottish roll"... it's basically stretching out the cotton against the grain (the direction of the fibers) then rolling it (with the grain) into a "tube". This creates a "tube" where the long fibers are aligned and creates a better spacing between the long fibers for the liquid to travel easier.

    To measure how much, try to go for a thickness that would be about the same size as the outside diameter to the coil while being as fluffy as possible. The goal is that you want it to fill the coil well so that once it expands once wet (as cotton swells up a bit) so that you do not have gaps, but you don't want to sticking out through the wraps. You want to get it to be in contact with the coil for the full length.

    One thing I consider a mistake that I see on many videos is that the person pulls the wick down at the ends, creating such a gap and can cause the legs and tips of the coils to be warmer as they aren't cooled by the flowing liquid through the wick.

    My technique consist of taking the amount (thickness), working it with the tip of my fingers to stretch it out, evening out the fibers, similar to hand rolling a cigarette and rolling the paper. I then give the whole length a twist so that it's slightly compressed and squeeze the tip to have the needle/threading thing going.... I keep twisting as I insert it through, measure how much I need, cut and continue and thread the second coil. The amount of wick, if correct, should be firm, but should fit well, aka it you tug on it and it was to rip/break off, then it's too much, if it just slides out really easily, then not enough. It needs to be able to slide out but with some fair amount of resistance (once untwisted).

    Once the cotton is threaded, I untwist and work it slightly until I can see that it's firm against the inner wall of the coil.

    For the length.... this completely depends on your deck. You need to judge how long you need for it to make it to the feed holes then add a bit.

    The extra should be used as your "reserve" on the ends of the coil by having a bit of it going upward a tiny bit before going down towards the feed holes. This also acts as a "padding" to have between the coil and the walls of the bell.

    Note: the wick needs to be such that you do not block the airflow whatsoever.

    At the feed holes, you can trim the edges so that your wick is clean and straight, with a bit of an angle cut if needed.. your wick can be "cone shaped" (trimmed to be a bit pointy) at the tips if your deck so requires it. Your goal is you want to fill the feed hole, so that all liquid present will get "sucked in" by the wick's tip and none passes by it (leak out). But you don't want to clog it, so while "full", the feed isn't blocked off.

    For most decks (RTAs), the best approach tends to be to get the wick into the wick feed "hole" (or such), try to have an angled or tapered tip, and to actually have a bit of empty space, so that at the very bottom of that feed hole, only a very small amount of cotton (as in a few strands) will actually touch the bottom, while the rest of the bottom is empty to allow the liquid to get it and be sucked up by the wick's tip/ends that's just above the bottom.

    Here's an example (RDA) that the wick has been in use for a while now. You can see that even after an extended time, the coil is "full" and the cotton looks firm in place, the outside edges are square instead of pulling down. While the cotton is darker in colour due to the liquids used, the coil itself is still clean, indicating that the flowing through the wick in working quite well.

    Extra notes about alternative wicking material:

    For hemp: this looks like couch stuffing, and is sold usually in small packs, and isn't straightened (at least the stuff I got), so I have to take a pinch-full and work it by pull it gently so that I "comb" the fibers gently so that they get as much straight fibers as possible. Hemp doesn't swell up like cotton so I have to get similar thickness as cotton, and add a bit and hold it firmer and twisted during insertion.

    Rayon:
    having not used it, I can only report what I've read about, which it that it needs to be make fairly tight in the coil, but the tips and the "legs" that goes into the feed holes or bottom of an RDA needs to be minimal. I'll amend this if I ever do try it.

    SS mesh: nope, I'm not touching this one ever, between the risk of metal shards, the fact that you need to oxidize the mesh to make it non conductive, and so on, I won't even bother saying more on this.

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Ftrk and opticruby like this.
  9. Ohm.. that's the resistance.. the lower the number, the lower the resistance, the higher the heat (and reached faster).

    With a decent regulated mod, I always recommend staying within 0.2ohm at the lowest, up to around the 1ohm range. This has an impact on the battery in regard to a battery's capacity and safety.

    If you're more into mtl (mouth to lung), then I recommend that you stick to higher ohms.

    Remember when building that each coil should be identical, and their resistance is shared, so a set of 1ohm coils, will give you a total of 0.5ohm.

    Note that various metals, different gauge (thickness of wire), how many wraps used, can give you very different coils that have the exact same Ohm reading BUT will require different wattage to heat up to a similar level.

    If you haven't read or use Steam engine, the de facto site for the Ohm calculator, here are links:
    Ohm law:
    Ohm's law | Steam Engine | free vaping calculators

    Wire wrapping calculator:
    Coil wrapping | Steam Engine | free vaping calculators


    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Winblows likes this.
  10. TC coils simply work better when spaced. Spaced coils tend to wick better (I find) as the distance between the wraps manages the liquid flow better (in my opinion and experience)

    Spaced coils are super easy:

    1) Take your wire, wrap it tight around whatever tool you're using for the size (drill bit, jig, etc.) desired, be it 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 or 4 mm.
    2) Pull it out like you're trying to undo a spring, just enough for it to be stretched out but that you can push it back on the tool.
    3) Push it back together, the coil will be spaced. The "springiness" of the wire prevents it from being tight again, and the spacing between the wraps should be even all across.

    It's a good thing to just "cook" any coil (heat it up just a bit without going red) when new and before you wick it is simply that it's going to burn off any residue oil or other coating it might have. You just press the button a few times and see some smoke coming from it... that's what you want.

    Not only will this burn off any crap, but will harden the metal a bit so that it will keep it's shape better for the wicking. If you have a tester that has the "claws" to hold/test wires such as the Pilot, you can do this even before putting the coil on your deck.

    Even with NI and TI you need to do this, but again, lowest heat possible (you must never make NI or TI go red), just enough to get the coil hot to burn this crap off. If you go with SS, then you don't have to worry as much about the dry heating thing but still, never go beyond the lowest glow possible.

    Note for dual builds: both coils should be as identical as possible. I recommend that you figure out your ohm range, double it, and cut your wire's length accordingly, adding a bit of extra length (no more than a couple of cm (or an inch max) needed for the cuts later while the install on the deck, and then fold in two end up with two wires that are the same... and will be the ohm range that you're going for.

    Checking for hot spots:

    NI and TI:

    1. do NOT glow them
    2. install them on your deck
    3. check the spacing between the wraps, you should be able to see any obvious location that the wraps aren't spaced well
    4. pulse them gently, but cover them in liquid gently, preferably pure VG if you have some as it's thicker and will hold in place better
    5. You should be able to see the liquid bubble up properly, it should be across the whole or most of the coil in a uniformed fashion and keep adding liquid to keep the coil cool so that it doesn't glow.
    6. if this appears to not be happening correctly, strum the coil (using a non-conductive tool) like a guitar string, or tug the side of the coil that may look too tight a bit.
    7. Repeat from #4 until things look good.
    Side note: Another method that I've seen some people do is the paper method, where you hold your coil against a piece of paper (regular white, possibly tissue or such) and pulse to see how it "browns" up and see how even it is. This method works but can be a bit hard to balance out the paper, or hold your mod without crushing your coil, etc. and make sure that you're using very low wattage.
    SS and other metals that aren't a risk to dry-burn
    • Very simple, just a few pulses and look to see that the coil or both coils in a dual deck starts glowing a gentle red from the center. If you don't want to do the glow, then do it using the NI/TI method with the liquid.
    • With a dual built, both coils should be in unison. If they aren't, ensure that the coil s spaced right, strum and tug the sides. Be aware that if your coil somehow ended up different number of wraps or such you will have to adjust the coils to match again.
    • if this appears to not be happening correctly, strum the coil (using a non-conductive tool) like a guitar string, or tug the side of the coil that may look too tight a bit.
    • Repeat from #4 until things look good.
    A good way to ensure that your coil is good and ready before you close your tank up is to:

    After you've done all the steps to ensure that you don't have hot spots, time to wick it. (go see my entry about wicking)

    Some people are rough with their wicking and don't realize that they just messed everything up and now have hot spots as they forced the wick in and ended up making the wraps touch be not be even. The can also end up with an empty spot where no wick is touching the coil.

    So once you've done the wicking, prime that sucker well, saturate that wick to the point of it can't hold anymore liquid... then pulse it. As you pulse it, the heat will condition your cotton, make it swell a bit, and start the wicking process. this will allow you to adjust it is needed but also to test if your coils are good to go.

    Making sure that your coil is very wet, as you pulse, you should be able to see the "boiling" on the coil. If done right, it should bubble from the whole coil and not just the center or a single area. You shouldn't have any spitting or popping (unless you're wattage is set way too high or your wicking has open spaces, which, in case you're wondering, start at a low wattage, 20W should be a good starting point, and if it's too slow, increase by 5W at a time)

    When everything appears good, check your OHM reading, then close the tank up, making sure that the coil does not touch anything, neither the posts nor the bell. This is where having the wick pulled a bit up at the end of the coils is good as it creates both a reservoir and a padding between the coil and the bell.

    Once the tank is closed, before anything, trigger for just a second to ensure
    1. you're not getting a message from the mod (if you do, then something is touching, possible pushing the coil crocked and messing the spacing/wraps, or the coil(s) is touching the sides of the bell)
    2. that the OHM reading is the same as before you closed it.
    And you should be good to go!

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Cf11 likes this.
  11. TCR (Temperature Coefficient of Resistance) this is the changes in resistance that occurs in metals when heated.

    Khantal (KH), the basic metal used by many, simple, but have very little TCR value, so it cannot do TC. It is used in wattage mode only.

    Nickel (usually referred as NI200), has the best TCR. It should always be used only with TC as when overheated, it creates oxides that are a health hazard.

    Titanium (TI), has a medium TCR. It should always be used only with TC as when overheated, it creates oxides that are a health hazard. This oxidation is more potentially hazardous than NI.

    Stainless steel (SS, with multiple variants, the most common being SS316 or SS316L). It has a lower TCR value, but can work quite fine in TC. Due to it's composition, it can be used in wattage more.

    Important note about SS: something that I had issues with was with small single coil RTAs (Eleaf Lemo2, OBS Ace) working in TC. This was something I found to be a common issue for many. Through lots of testing and tries I finally got it and understood the issue. Metal mass, you NEED enough wire/metal for the mod to register the TCR. So if you end up with such an issue, just add as many wraps as will fit on your deck. Just don't care about the ohm range being "higher"...

    Please go see my newer post about temperature control explained for more info!

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
  12. A lot of people have been debating about charging via the USB ports of regulated mods as many appear to have concept taken from AC or mechanical aspects of electrical devices that are not correct.

    Here's the run down about this.

    Most newer regulated mods have charging circuits that are either similar or the same as per any other electronic devices such as cell phones, tablets, etc.

    This circuit manages the incoming power according the the specifications that they are build to do.

    Using any power source, either your computer port or a wall socket adapter, normally, the circuits will absorb the power that it's rated and specified to do.

    If your mod is rated for 1A, it will charge up to 1A.
    If you provide a lower power, such as 0.5A as per a computer port, the mod will simply charge at this 0.5A capacity and just be slower.
    If you provide a 1A adapter, it will charge at 1A.
    If you provide it with a 2A adapter, it will still be charging at 1A as this is it's maximum charging set, and will simply not take more than that.

    For more questions about charging with USB, just read this article: The Basics of USB Battery Charging: A Survival Guide - Tutorial - Maxim

    It explains very well how charging units functions... it's a bit technical, but overall it explains how a charging circuits starts off checking the incoming power and limits it quite low, then increases to balance between the available incoming power and how it will increase the incoming load to it's "set" maximum should the incoming power matches (or is higher, which it will cut off).


    Another good link I found was this one: How to: Understanding power consumption

    Voltage is very important, USB devices are set for 5V, no more, no less, otherwise it's going to be a problem for the device... aka, that's what it's been built to work with.

    Amps are taken in... "pulled" or a better word might be "consumed".

    Basically, the device is going to take as much Amps as 1) it is set to absorb, and 2) going up to that limit, it will gobble everything it gets (but again, NOT more than it's set to gobble, so if the device can take in 1A, giving it 2A isn't going to change that it's only going to take 1A and never mind the extra, BUT if you give it only 0.5A, it will simply be taking 0.5A as that's all that's coming in, it cannot "force" more Amp. from the adapter, it cannot create a vacuum that would force the adapter to produce more Amps.)

    Let me know if I missed something, and please go read and enjoy all my other entries as I'm building my blog, I'm trying to cover every aspect of vaping that I know about. I'll keep adding items as I think of them and have the time to write them.
    Slipperee and opticruby like this.