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  1. Here are the links to each of my blog entries. This index will be updated as new entries are added.

    You are responsible for your own safety!

    These batteries are designed, manufactured, and sold only for use in a battery pack with the proper protection circuitry and battery management system. They were not designed for vaping (electronic cigarette) use or for use without protection circuitry. Use of these batteries is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.
    • Only buy batteries from a known, trusted vendor of genuine batteries.
    • Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    • The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery bursting.
    • Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    • I am not responsible for any damage or injury sustained by anyone using this information to select a battery.
    Link to All My YouTube Videos
    Links to All My Tests and My Recommended Batteries
    Test Results, Ratings, and Performance Tables
    Assorted Battery Stuff
    Some Good Vendors
    www.akkuteile.de
    www.batterybro.com
    www.ecoluxshopdirect.co.uk
    www.illumn.com
    www.imrbatteries.com
    www.liionwholesale.com
    www.nkon.nl
    www.orbtronic.com
    www.rtdvapor.com
  2. Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.

    You are responsible for your own safety! The Li-Ion batteries we use are designed only for use in a battery pack with the proper physical and electronic protection. They were not meant to be used in any device without protection circuitry. Use of any battery or device is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    - Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    - The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery exploding.
    - Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    - Never use or charge a battery that is more than warm or below freezing.
    - Never use a battery with a dented top or bottom contact.
    - Never use a “mechanical” mod/device without understanding how to properly use Ohm’s Law
    to select a battery appropriate for your coil resistance and the way you vape.
    - Never use an atomizer on a “mechanical” mod/device with a hybrid top cap unless the atomizer is approved for that use. It MUST have a sufficiently protruding, fixed, non-adjustable 510 pin or the battery could short-circuit and explode.



    Overview
    This table contains the results of my ongoing testing of the voltage drops of mechanical mods at 30A (thirty amps). It can be used to compare the performance of the different mods.

    This table only shows you the voltage drop and power lost in the mod itself. It does not show you the voltage you will get at your coils as that depends on the battery you use, its age and condition, the atomizer you use, and how clean everything is.


    Calculating the voltage at your coils at 30A
    - The voltage at your coils is 4.2V minus the voltage drops in the mod, atomizer, and battery.
    - The mod’s voltage drop at 30A is listed in the table.
    - The atomizer’s voltage drop at 30A varies depending on your atomizer but the Cosmonaut drops 18mV (0.018V).
    - The battery’s voltage drop (voltage sag) is equal to the battery’s DC internal resistance * 30A. You can get the battery’s DC internal resistance (DC IR) from my test report for the battery. A good performing battery ranges from 0.011 to 0.020 ohms.

    Coil Voltage at 30A = 4.2V - (Mech Voltage Drop + Atomizer Voltage Drop + Battery Voltage Sag)

    This assumes a freshly charged new battery, a VERY well cleaned mod in good working order, and no arcing damage on the battery or the mod’s contacts.

    To calculate the voltage at the coils at different current levels you’ll need to use the mod’s voltage drop to calculate its resistance. Then use Ohm’s Law to calculate its voltage at the new current level. Use the battery’s DC IR and the new current level to calculate the battery sag. The resistance of the Cosmonaut I use is 0.607mOhms (0.000607 ohms). Your atomizer will be different from that but hopefully not by much. The atomizer voltage drop is quite small compared to the battery sag though.


    Test Information
    - To remove some of variables that can make it hard to directly compare mod performance, all voltage drops in the table are just from the mod itself. They do not include the atomizer’s voltage drop or the battery’s voltage drop (sag).
    - All tests are done at 30A using a Cosmonaut atomizer and solid aluminum slugs to pass current through the device.
    - Five button presses and voltage drop measurements are taken. The highest/lowest are thrown out and the remaining three are averaged.
    - A measured atomizer resistance of 601 micro-ohms and battery slug resistance of 6 micro-ohms were used for calculating the mech resistance using Ohm’s Law. Mech Resistance = (Average Voltage Drop / Current) - Atomizer Resistance - Battery Slug Resistance.
    - The voltage drop in the Cosmonaut atomizer at 30A is 18.2mV (0.0182V).
    - The voltage drop in the aluminum slugs at 30A is 0.2mV to 0.3mV (0.0002V to 0.0003V).
    - Power Loss (just in the mech itself) = Mech Voltage Drop * Current, rounded off to the nearest tenth of a watt.

    92F1F814-73BC-45EA-8B9D-029B2EF0E982.jpeg

    Click on the thumbnail image above to open the full size table
  3. They are meant only to give you an idea of the risk if a battery is accidentally discharged at beyond its continuous current rating when vaping. You should not consider them as a rating for the battery that you can vape at!

    If properly used the MVA limit can help increase our safety. But it has been misused by too many.

    Safety is important and must guide us in the recommendations we make. I have decided to remove the MVA limit numbers from my tables and ask that everyone delete any tables they have now and download the new ones that are available. See the links below.

    Please do not post or distribute any earlier version of these tables.
    Please delete any earlier version of these tables you might have posted.
    Please do not recommend the MVA limit as an acceptable vaping level.

    I ask this with all the sincerity and urgency that I can muster...please.

    Our community is under increased scrutiny and battery and vaping hardware (atomizer and device) regulations/standards are now being discussed and written...very severe ones. I am not allowed to discuss some of what I've learned but it could be bad. We must set a good example and self-regulate our community as best as we can. I cannot emphasize too strongly the importance of this.

    I realize that many are vaping at discharge levels considerably above the continuous discharge rating (CDR) of their batteries and have done so without incident. But that doesn't mean it's done without risk.

    Giving the community the tools and data we need to pick the best battery is very important to me though. I have a way to replace the pulse testing I do now. These new tests can be used to directly compare how hard one battery hits versus another and which is the better performer. It will simplify my testing too.

    Many battery wrapping companies sell batteries with ratings that are considerably higher than the battery's true ratings. This is an issue I will continue to devote a lot of my time to.

    I realize that many of you will be upset at these changes. I'm not doing this to piss off the high power vapers. :) You will still have the tools you need to pick the best performing battery. I will post about this soon.

    But I can only recommend to our community that we never exceed the continuous current rating (CDR) of any battery. These batteries were never meant to be used outside of a battery pack with suitable protection electronics.

    Each of us can decide the level of risk we wish to take ourselves but we should recommend safe battery use to others.

    Thank you for your time.
    Sorry for the long read and the inconvenience of having to replace your tables!

    18350/18500 table:
    18350/18500 Safety Grades and Pulse Performance Data | E-Cigarette Forum

    18650 table:
    18650 Battery Ratings -- Picking a Safe Battery to Vape With | E-Cigarette Forum

    20650/20700/21700 table:
    20650/20700/21700 Battery Safety Ratings Table | E-Cigarette Forum

    26650 table:
    https://www.e-cigarette-forum.com/blog-entry/26650-safety-grades-and-pulse-performance-data.7554/
  4. You are responsible for your own safety!

    These batteries are designed, manufactured, and sold only for use in a battery pack with the proper protection circuitry and battery management system. They were not designed for vaping (electronic cigarette) use or for use without protection circuitry. Use of these batteries is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.

    • Only buy batteries from a known, trusted vendor of genuine batteries.
    • Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    • The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery bursting.
    • Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    I am not responsible for any damage or injury sustained by anyone using this table to select a battery.

    The table below only notes the ratings for batteries at the time I tested them. For any battery not in a Samsung, Sony, LG, Panasonic, or Sanyo plastic wrap the battery being used can change at any time! This is one of the hazards of using “rewrapped” batteries. To avoid this issue only use genuine Samsung, Sony, LG, Panasonic, or Sanyo batteries in their original plastic wraps.


    Here are the ratings for the 20mm and 21mm diameter batteries:

    A965D70D-95F8-45F3-BC28-307D0E60FCA3.jpeg

    Click the above thumbnail to open the full size table.

  5. You are responsible for your own safety!

    These batteries are designed, manufactured, and sold only for use in a battery pack with the proper protection circuitry and battery management system. They were not designed for vaping (electronic cigarette) use or for use without protection circuitry. Use of these batteries is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.

    • Only buy batteries from a known, trusted vendor of genuine batteries.
    • Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    • The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery bursting.
    • Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    I am not responsible for any damage or injury sustained by anyone using this table to select a battery.

    807B061C-D301-4DB0-8871-B5A78277BF74.jpeg

    Click on the thumbnail above to open the full-size table
  6. It's widely believed that the LiPo battery packs used in DNA200/250 and custom box mods need to be charged/discharged several times before they reach their peak performance.

    Is this true?

    To find out I took three new 3S packs and balanced charged them at 5A on an iCharger106B+ to 12.60V followed by a discharge to 9.0V at 20A constant-current. I did this a total of five times for each pack with a 60 second rest between each step. A lot of effort was made to ensure that the pack temperatures were consistent from cycle to cycle.

    Here are the three discharge graphs:
    IMG_4846.jpg IMG_4847.jpg IMG_4848.jpg

    As you can see there was no increase in the capacity of the pack or an increase in its voltage while being discharged (which would indicate a decrease in its internal resistance).

    For two of the three packs I measured the internal resistance before and after the tests were done:

    Turnigy 25C-35C 2200mAh before = 18.3 mOhms
    Turnigy 25C-35C 2200mAh after = 18.5 mOhms

    MaxAmps 100C 2250mAh before = 21.9 mOhms
    MaxAmps 100C 2250mAh after = 22.8 mOhms

    The break-in cycles didn't lower the internal resistance of the packs. In fact, they did exactly what any use of the pack does...ages the pack and increases its internal resistance.

    The break-in cycling did not improve the performance of any of the three packs. It only wasted five of the limited number of cycles available before the packs would need to be replaced.

    I also did five break-in cycles for each of the ten 1800mAh 3S LiPo packs I recently tested. Those break in cycles were done at some pack assembler's typical recommended levels, 1C charge and 2C-3C discharge. There was no increase in performance between cycle 1 and cycle 5 for any of the packs.

    Will this be the case for every LiPo? I don't know.

    There might be some LiPo's that were not fully formed (initialized) at the factory in order to save money. Their performance would increase during the first few cycles. There also might be some that were stored for a long time before being used. This can cause the thickening of an important chemical divider (the SEI layer) between certain parts of the battery, increasing its internal resistance. Cycling the battery can reduce its thickness and restore some performance.

    I know that many in the R/C community feel strongly that this cycling is needed but the tests described above and my recent testing of ten different 1800mAh 3S LiPo packs showed no increase in performance after being cycled a few times.

    I have an idea why some might feel they are seeing an improvement in performance though.

    LiPo cells, which use lithium-cobalt chemistry, show a very small change in voltage for a big change in capacity during most of the discharge compared to other Li-Ion chemistries. This "flat discharge curve" is one of the big benefits of using LiPo's.

    But this flat discharge curve also means that just a small change in the voltage of the battery can result in a big change in the capacity the battery delivers to cutoff voltages above 3.2V or so. If the pack is warm its internal resistance drops and the voltage the pack runs at is higher. This allows the pack to run for a lot longer before dropping to the cutoff voltage.

    Since the outer wraps of a LiPo pack are very effective heat insulators the internal temperature of a LiPo pack can be a lot higher than the external temperature. It can seem to be only a bit above room temperature but actually be much warmer. Unless the pack is allowed to sit for at least an hour after charging, two hours or longer for larger packs, the internal resistance could be lower than when the pack was first used in the tests.

    This would cause the packs to run at a higher voltage, making it seem that its performance had improved with cycling. But the improved performance was really only due to the pack being warm.

    I am not saying that everyone who cycles their packs and says they see an improvement is wrong!

    I am not saying that no LiPo packs respond to break-in cycling!

    I am merely saying that in my testing of thirteen different packs I see no sign of break-in cycling having any effect on performance. It shouldn't though. Properly formed packs, not stored for months and months, should not need any sort of break-in to reach their best performance levels.

    I'd be interested in hearing your experiences regarding breaking in LiPo packs, especially if you took measures to make sure internal pack temperatures were consistent for each cycle.

    Thanks!
  7. You are responsible for your own safety!

    These batteries are designed, manufactured, and sold only for use in a battery pack with the proper protection circuitry and battery management system. They were not designed for vaping (electronic cigarette) use or for use without protection circuitry. Use of these batteries is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.
    • Only buy batteries from a known, trusted vendor of genuine batteries.
    • Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    • The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery bursting.
    • Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    • I am not responsible for any damage or injury sustained by anyone using this information to select a battery.

      Here are the ratings I am using for LiPo's...

      CDR = Continuous Discharge Rating. The nearest 5A-multiple of constant-current continuous discharge current that brings the inner cell of a 3S pack to a temperature of 60°C. This is what the LiPo assemblers recommend as the max running temperature so it makes sense to use it as the rating. Especially since the inner cell will be hotter internally than this temperature, perhaps considerably.

      Testing shows that the temperature of the middle cell in a 3S pack is 7°C-10°C higher than the temperature of the outer cells (but still under the shrink wrap and protection wrap). This means that when I measure a temperature of about 50°C-53°C the inner cell of a pack has reached at least 60°C, its limit. A 2S pack will run a bit cooler and a 4S, or higher, pack will run a bit hotter than this.

      Most of the 3S packs I have start puffing (temporarily) at around 60°C or lower so I agree with the pack assemblers that it should be used as the max running temperature for decent cycle life. Going over this temperature will start damaging the pack a lot faster. Note that at an internal temperature of 60°C the outside of a pack is just warm.

      The protective and shrink wraps used on these packs are very effective insulators. It takes at least an hour for each pack to cool back down to room temperature internally. These 1800mAh packs are small too. Larger packs would take at least a couple of hours to cool.


      BEING UPDATED

      Click on the thumbnail above to download the 1800mAh 3S LiPo pack ratings table
  8. It's time to put this myth to rest. Using rice to help dry batteries or a mod that got wet doesn't help at all. In fact, it slows down evaporation of any water that is inside.

    I set up a 24 hour test using paper towel sheets with enough water added to bring their weight to 18 gms. I then put these wet folded paper towels in four places; a slightly ventilated box in rice, a slightly ventilated box 3 feet in front of a fan on low, a bare folded paper towel in still air, and a bare folded paper towel 3 feet in front of a fan on low. The complete results are in the table but two are presented here...
    • Amount of water that evaporated from the box in the rice after 24 hours = 2 gms
    • Amount of water that evaporated from the box in front of the fan after 24 hours = 10 gms
    Five times more water evaporated from the box that was in front of the fan. It's clear that burying anything in rice just slows down the evaporation of any water that's present. This makes sense though. Rice can't vacuum up water. It can only absorb any water that evaporates and touches the surface of the rice. Even then though rice is a lousy absorber of atmospheric water.

    Since the device that is wet is buried in rice, with no air movement, the humidity level quicky rises up to 100% next to any water that is present inside the device. This significantly slows down any evaporation that could take place.

    Adding air movement blows away the layer of very humid air above any water, allowing the water to evaporate much faster.

    Some of you might have tried using rice and found that you could turn on your mod a day or two later and it worked. But did you open up your mod to see if the water had actually evaporated? How can we know that the rice did anything?

    Bottom Line: If you have a mod that got wet, do not turn it on. Remove the batteries (if possible), shake out any water you can, and then place it in front of a fan. Rotate it every couple of hours to try to get any blowing air into any seams or ventilation holes. It should be pretty dry internally in 24 hours.

    Please don't bury it in rice!

    [edit] I'm sure there will be those who feel this test was invalid for one reason or another. It's backed up by every good test like this I found online but I strongly encourage anyone who feels I erred to do their own tests. I would love to see the results!

    [edit] For those who are concerned that the paper towels "lock in" the water, keeping it from evaporating:

    Pictures of the setups:

    Attached Files:

    Baditude, untar, KS_Referee and 6 others like this.
  9. Some chargers, like the Efest LUC V4, can be used to charge batteries that have dropped to very low voltages, below 2.5V. While this is tempting there is a risk when doing this.

    When a Li-Ion battery drops below 2.0V or so the copper electrode inside of it literally starts to dissolve. When the battery is recharged this dissolved metal is plated back onto parts of the battery that should not be conductive. This can cause an internal short-circuit which can lead to overheating, venting, or even bursting of the battery. Even if it still works after charging that battery might be damaged and wouldn't be married to the other batteries you used with it anymore.

    It's impossible to say though whether any over-discharging of a battery is unsafe or not since the battery damage is cumulative. The more time it spends at around 2.0V, and the lower the voltage, the more damage is done and the riskier it is to use that battery. If the battery is recharged quickly then the damage is minimal. If the battery slowly self-discharged over months of storage then the damage is greater and the risk is a lot higher.

    I'll always recommend just replacing an over-discharged battery if you weren't able to recharge it right away. If you do decide to use it though I recommend the following...

    - Recharge it as soon as possible.

    - Recharge it at the lowest current setting possible.

    - Stay nearby! You want to be able to stop the discharge immediately if the battery starts overheating or there is some other problem.

    So while the recovery feature can help bring back a battery that was overdischarged you need to weigh the risks versus replacing the battery. Remember, even if you recover the battery it might be damaged and no longer married to its partner(s). Keep an eye on the battery voltages and temperatures for a while to make sure the recovery went well.
  10. PBusardo was kind enough to offer me a page on his web site and I jumped at the chance. The first article is up. Thank you for this opportunity Phil!

    http://www.tasteyourjuice.com/wordpress/the-battery-mooch
    Shadav, Katya, KS_Referee and 16 others like this.
  11. Even though the Sony VTC4 is still in production and genuine ones are available there are vapers who are uncomfortable taking a chance at buying counterfeit Sony batteries. Could the 22A-25A rated LG HD2, HD2C, and HD4 be as good as the Sony VTC4? Let's find out.

    In the graphs below I discharged all four batteries at 10A-20A-30A continuous and 30A pulsed. In the constant current graph all of them ran at about the same voltage at 10A continuous but the HD2C lasted a bit longer. At 20A and 30A continuous the HD2C ran at a higher voltage (hit harder) than the others and still lasted longer. The VTC4 didn't beat the HD2C but it performed a bit better than the HD2 and HD4.

    In the 30A pulse current graph the HD2C lasted a bit longer than the rest with the VTC4 and HD4 about tied for second place. While the HD2C ran at a slightly higher voltage than the others when pulsed they were all very close in performance and I don't think you'd see a difference in actual use.

    So, is there a good alternative to the VTC4?

    Yes, the LG HD2C.
    It not only runs at a slightly higher voltage but lasts a bit longer too. The LG HD4 is a close second in these tests and is roughly equivalent to the VTC4 for vaping at up to about 25A-30A/100W.

    image.png image.png image.png
  12. Those are lithium-ferrous-phosphate batteries, or "LFP". They are also called IFR. They are a different type of Li-Ion chemistry than the ones we use most often when vaping, often called IMR, INR, and ICR.

    The continuous discharge current specifications for these batteries seem to be perfect for vaping; 30A for the 18650 and 70A for the 26650. But there are a few things to consider before using them in a mod...
    • The A123 18650 is only 1100mAh. The A123 26650 is only 2300mAh.
    • LFP batteries have a lower nominal voltage than the IMR/INR/ICR batteries we normally use, 3.3V. While you can compensate for this lower voltage in an unregulated/mechanical mod it means that regulated mods will stop firing and show a weak/low battery message much sooner than normal.
    • LFP batteries need a 3.6V charger. They cannot be charged to 4.2V!
    There is one very important advantage to these LFP batteries though: they are the safest Li-Ion chemistry we can use. The temperature at which they go into thermal runaway is higher than IMR, INR, or ICR batteries. If they do go into thermal runaway the reaction is much less violent than with other chemistries. There are usually no flames and the temperature of the reaction is much lower.

    Does this increased safety, and the high current ratings, make LFP batteries worth using in our mods? In my opinion, no. Being limited to unregulated/mech mod use, modifying the build resistances, and buying another charger is a lot to do just to use a low capacity battery. Even if it is safer when short-circuited.

    The A123 26650 battery might be worth the trouble and low capacity since it has a current rating far above any other 26650. But is it that much better than two 30A IMR or INR 18650's? Not really. Is it safer? Yes, a bit. But if you don't abuse your 18650's and maintain their wraps the extra safety is never needed.

    So, can we use LiFePO4 batteries for vaping? Yes.
    I don't feel they're worth the compromises though. But if safety is your top priority perhaps they might be worth it for you.

    image.jpeg image.jpeg
  13. It's tempting to use very high capacity batteries, over 3000mAh, to try to get more vaping time before needing to recharge. But there aren't any 18650 batteries with a capacity over 3000mAh that have a rating above 10A!

    Batteries like the Panasonic 3200mAh NCR18650B look like a great way to get more vaping time but they're only rated at 4.9A. And the Efest, Imren, and other Chinese-company high-capacity batteries are just rewraps of 10A Panasonic and LG batteries.

    If you vape at under 20W (per battery) or so then you can use the 3200mAh Panasonic NCR18650B.

    If you vape at under 35W (per battery) or so then you can use the over-3000mAh Efest's, Imren's, etc. But Panasonic/Sanyo NCR18650GA, LG MJ1, and LG MH1 batteries are less expensive and possibly a higher grade.

    Can you vape at higher power levels with these 4.9A and 10A batteries? Of course! The batteries won't explode and your face won't melt off if you do.

    But the voltage sag is so severe that at over about 5A-7A you can actually get more vaping time from the 3000mAh LG HG2 and Samsung 30Q. This is because their internal resistance is lower than the over-3000mAh batteries. This allows them to run more efficiently, with less voltage sag, and that means they run for longer before your mod says low/weak battery.

    So, know your batteries and vape safe.
  14. If you want to start going beyond what www.batteryuniversity.com covers here are a few of the more interesting papers I've read on Li-Ion batteries. They are quite technical though!

    Thermal runaway caused fire and explosion of lithium ion battery:
    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Qingsong_Wang4/publication/257224404_ChemInform_Abstract_Thermal_Runaway_Caused_Fire_and_Explosion_of_Lithium_Ion_Battery/links/54cf7bc10cf29ca810fe2f30.pdf?origin=publication_detail

    Thermal runaway in Li-Ion — getting the missing data:
    http://www.helgroup.com/articles/pdf/b426f8c49b436d84/Thermal Runaway in Li-ion Article Best Tech Magazine.pdf

    Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries:
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.3672v3.pdf

    Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Thermal Abuse Performance of 18650 Li-Ion Cells:
    http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2004/040584.pdf

    Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?:
    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/UserFiles/works/pdfs/alici_v2.pdf

    Understanding Lithium-Ion Technology:
    http://www.battcon.com/papersfinal2008/mcdowallpaper2008proof_9.pdf

    Mechanism of intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions in graphene nanosheets:
    Mechanism of intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions in graphene nanosheets | SpringerLink

    In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway:
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150428/ncomms7924/pdf/ncomms7924.pdf

    Some thermal runaway and Li-Ion abuse papers:
    https://www2.unece.org/wiki/download/attachments/24477990/EVS-06-35e.pdf?api=v2

    https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/sum/sum12/sum12_p057_060.pdf

    http://www.nrel.gov/transportation/energystorage/pdfs/43186.pdf

    http://www.helgroup.com/articles/pdf/b426f8c49b436d84/Thermal Runaway in Li-ion Article Best Tech Magazine.pdf

    http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/162/9/A1905.full.pdf

    http://www.battcon.com/PapersFinal2015/17 Ponchaut Paper 2015.pdf

    https://www2.unece.org/wiki/download/attachments/24477990/EVS-06-35e.pdf?api=v2

    http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2014/RA/C3RA45748F

    Aging Mechanisms in Li-ion Batteries:
    https://www.mecheng.osu.edu/nlbb/files/nlbb/Battery_aging_09.pdf

    Degradation Mechanisms and Lifetime Prediction for Lithium- Ion Batteries – A Control Perspective:
    http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/64171.pdf

  15. You are responsible for your own safety!

    These batteries are designed, manufactured, and sold only for use in a battery pack with the proper protection circuitry and battery management system. They were not designed for vaping (electronic cigarette) use or for use without protection circuitry. Use of these batteries is AT YOUR OWN RISK!

    Misusing or mishandling lithium-ion batteries can pose a SERIOUS RISK of personal injury or property damage.

    • Only buy batteries from a known, trusted vendor of genuine batteries.
    • Never use a battery, charger, or device that is not in perfect working order.
    • The plastic battery wrap and top insulating ring must always be kept in perfect condition to prevent short-circuiting of the battery which can result in the battery bursting.
    • Never exceed the battery's continuous discharge rating (CDR) or charge rating.
    • I am not responsible for any damage or injury sustained by anyone using this information to select a battery.

    I'm often asked what batteries I would recommend. Here's the entire list. :)

    It does not mean I think your batteries are bad if you use ones not on this list!
    These are merely my personal recommendations to help reduce the number of different batteries to choose from.

    Note: The non-Samsung/Sony/LG/Panasonic/Sanyo batteries can change what is used under the wrap at any time.


    Mechanical/Unregulated Mod Recommended Batteries Table
    FA3C1D61-A848-45E2-8D40-78E69546FDE9.jpeg


    Regulated Mod Recommended Batteries Table
    A7D7EC64-DF6D-49BA-B8BF-331714D07A2D.jpeg


    Click on a thumbnail above to download the table
    CMD-Ky, arkanGTI, Shadowtao and 104 others like this.
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