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  1. Here are the links to each of my blog entries. This index will be updated as new entries are added.
    (All images have been fixed after photosucket held the originals for ransom)

    About Me

    Atty Test Results
    All Atty testing was performed while actually vaping the fully assembled atty.
    eJuice and Nic Test Results
    Reviews
    Musings

    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
  2. I have discovered I am a wimp! I thought I was hardcore running 36mg on dual coils and clapton coils etc, MTL. But I have to admit, 2mg DTL on this high wattage beast just kicks my butt. I wont be testing any more of these, DTL is not my thing.

    My first attempt at testing this I just did MtL. It was pointed out that DTL is the typical usage so I redid the tests. DTL did lower the temps considerably vs MtL.

    I installed the probe along side one of the coils and put it all together and vaped it.

    upload_2017-8-12_16-13-10.jpeg



    upload_2017-8-12_16-10-46.png

    Subjectively it tasted hotter than the test results reflect, not a lot of cooling of the vape before it exits the atty. And next time I test something like this I about going to cut my nic by 75%.



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    cigatron likes this.
  3. Penguin SE
    upload_2017-8-12_15-44-30.png

    • This is a refillable "Pod Mod". Comes with 2 different "Atopack" coils,, a 0.25 ohm for DTL and 0.6 ohm for MtL.
    • It is a direct output mod, ie it is like a mech, no regulation.
    • There is no airflow adjustment and MtL is a little too airy, but it is easily modded to restrict airflow to 50%.
    • Common complaint on these atopack coils is dry hits. Avoiding high VG and/or doing the 50% airflow mod reduces this to near zero.
    • Based on testing I would say it is plenty safe at .6ohms, while the 0.25 ohm is marginally hot.

    Threaded probe through pod cartridge and inserted next to coil.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    These are the test results.
    [​IMG]

    Sample test graph: .025 ohm coil with 100% airflow

    [​IMG]

    To make the 50% airflow reduction mod, you can just put a piece of tape over part of the airholes.
    upload_2017-8-12_15-45-22.png

    Or if you want something more elegant, plug the air channel from the bottom.

    Remove the silicone plug, being careful not to lose ( and subsequently replace) the little metal plate.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Place a piece of cotton in half the air channel, it has a nice divider down the middle so 50% restriction is easy.
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Some other thoughts.
    • I vape unflavored, so you may have different results with flavored juices. But with unflavored I will sometimes get that "ever so slightly" scorched tasting hit. Not a full on Devils Butt burnt hit, just slightly scorched. When I get those I "STOP", if I hit it again I know I will get Devils Butt next time. I will cover the air channel with my thumb and do a couple of dry puffs without firing, and without airflow. That creates enough vacuum to pull some juice into the coil. I am usually good to go after that.
    • The other thing is the juice level window in the Penguin SE can be hard to see. If you ever let you tank run dry and get a single Devil Butt hit, that coil is shot, there is no salvaging it. I make it a habit to fill my tanks when I see only about 25% in the window.
    • When refilling the the tank, I know you can push it and put 9ml in the tank. That actually works against you as it creates more vapor-lock inside the tank. I have found much better results by filling the tank only about 90% and leaving a nice little air bubble in it.
    Follow up dissection:
    It is standard lipo pack technology, except that it is oval shaped instead of the usual flat packs we see.

    At full charge I measure 4.18v which is what I expected. There are no regulation electronics at all except for the battery management. So it is indeed akin to an electronic mech.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    northhar, dwcraig1 and cigatron like this.
  4. Test results:

    One thing I failed to record was that the stock coils were on the newer "vertical" style coil, not the original horizontal coils.

    upload_2017-8-26_9-5-2.png

    Looks like above 3.9v on VV, or 7.5W on VW, started getting a little warm with respect to the claims made in the Wang Study. Using the largest airflow setting did reduce temps a bit more.

    If you are just joining the party, please view this blog entry for details on how I am performing my testing.



    Example of graph:
    [​IMG]



    Test Porn:
    The way I rigged this particular atty was I gently stuck a sewing needle down the outside of the coil and made a tiny hole to slip the probe through. Then I inserted the probe inside the hole. Once it got wet the fill swelled around it.

    [​IMG]

    A closer view.
    upload_2017-8-2_8-28-3.png

    Full Rig.
    [​IMG]



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
  5. Ok, so Photosucket screwed us.
    Here is one way you can fix your Blogs, and any other posts that you can still edit.

    You can easily run your own private image hosting app that is even more powerful than Photobucket, and a heck of a lot faster, with no Ads. You can even set it up for a group of users, each with their own logon. If you have a small group, it would only be $1 or less a month to maintain this.

    The beauty of this is you are controlling your own images, and links, nobody can ever cut you off and hold you for ransom.

    upload_2017-7-14_14-56-23.png

    This assumes that you have a website being hosted by some "Web Hosting" service, I use "Lunarpages", a lot of other folks like "GoDaddy", there are hundreds out there.
    • If you dont have one, you can get one for less than $6-$10 a month quite easily. Look for a service that uses "cpanel" (important) for managing your web account, they are quite common. Shop around, there are hundreds of web hosting services out there, and they are quite inexpensive now.

    Install Chevereto:
    • Download and install "Chevereto-Free". If your web host "cpanel" has a "Softaculous Apps Installer" (many do) there is a good chance this app is already in there.
    • upload_2017-7-14_14-58-6.png
    • upload_2017-7-14_14-58-16.png
    • Once installed there are two very important settings you want to make. This is what will make fixing your old post easier. These settings are found under Dashboard/Settings/Image Upload
    • upload_2017-7-14_15-5-36.png
    • There are tons of other settings, just make sure you get the 2 above right. This would be a good time to upload a few images, and play with all of the other settings and make sure you get it behaving the way you want to. Takes a few minutes, but its worth it.


    Now, download all of your Photobucket Albums:
    • Log into photobucket and click the "Library" link
    • Click on a "Bucket" or an "Album".
    • upload_2017-7-14_15-45-26.png
    • Look on the right-hand side for ACTIONS
    • Click on the DOWNLOAD ALBUM link
    • upload_2017-7-14_15-17-27.png
    • This will allow you to download the whole album in one zip file which you then save somewhere on your computer.
    • Do this for each ALBUM in Photobucket. Note, if you have sub-folders in an album, you have to do each one individually.

    Now, upload your photos into Chevereto:
    • Upload each of your albums into CHEVERETO
    • I recommend sorting them into albums as you upload them, you will see the link to do so after the upload is complete.
    • Dont worry though, you can move them from one album to another later if you like, it wont break the links.
    • Do this for each the zip files you downloaded from Photobucket.
    • A key concept here was keeping the exact same filenames that you had in Photosucket, this makes fixing your posts MUCH easier.
      • Dont realy on your original files (that maybe you still have in your camera or whatever) as Photosucket changed the filenames when you uploaded them there. We now want to keep and recycle those changed filenames.


    Now, to fix you old Posts and Blog entries:

    Edit the old post and do this:

    While in EDIT Mode, click on the ransom thumbnail:
    upload_2017-7-14_14-32-18.png


    Highlight the portion of the link all the way up to the last backslash just prior to the filename, and delete it.

    upload_2017-7-14_14-33-54.png
    after deletion, just the /filename left.
    upload_2017-7-14_14-34-53.png



    Now paste in the prefix for your new CHEVERETO file path:

    upload_2017-7-14_14-37-7.png



    And click INSERT:
    Your image will now appear.
    [​IMG]





    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Katdarling, cigatron, Adan and 2 others like this.
  6. @homeuser6 sent me an RSST genny with a 2.08ohm kanthal coil, wrapped around 3mm Ekowool. He vapes on a mech so he asked me to measure that set of parameters. juice was about 85/15 VG/DW.

    Note that this was a "modded" top cap and had four 1mm airholes. This made a huge difference as when I taped off 3 of the airholes the temperatures at every setting rose 50-100 degrees.

    Even on a fresh battery (4.2v) this build looked good.
    This is 3 5-sec puffs with a break in between followed by a couple of chain vapes

    [​IMG]

    Probe inserted easily on this build:

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    And for the full stats (he said he never lets his bat drop below 3.6v):

    [​IMG]


    ETA: DL hits were about 25% lower in temp, and quite tasty, I would rather enjoy that setup with a little higher nic.



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    homeuser6 and cigatron like this.
  7. iClear 16

    Thanks to @Mazinny I had a bunch of iClear16s to test.

    • Stock dual coil 2.1 ohm
    • VV tested on a Provari
    • VW tested ona Vamo
    • 40/40/10 PG/VG/Flavoring used, 36mgml
    • Standard NIST traceable Thermocouple test bench
    Was tricky to insert probe, inserted probe on top of bottom coil:

    [​IMG]
    Used a red hot sewing needle to make small hole in tank to thread probe. Made small knot as a "strain relief" to keep probe from getting pulled out.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    This is at 3.9v, a couple of spaced hits, then a couple chain hits:

    [​IMG]

    This was at 6w, a couple of spaced hits, then a couple chain hits:

    [​IMG]

    And finally, the full data:

    [​IMG]




    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    cigatron likes this.
  8. OK, so the Protank 2 coils were a real PITA to test.

    The 40gauge thermocouples are tiny, delicate, and they fell out easily and frequently. So I got a chance to see and feel the wicks a lot while re-threading the probe. There is no doubt, the rebuilt coils with cotton held magnitudes more juice than the stock coils with silica wicks.

    This may shock some tootle folks, but data is data, and this is what I measured.
    Stock 2.2 ohm coil on a Protank2. Red was 5.5w, yellow was 5.0w, and blue was 6.0w
    [​IMG]
    ************************************
    YES: On a Protank 2 with a stock 2.2ohm coil
    you are hitting over 500F at 6 watts!
    ************************************


    The rebuilt coil made with 30g kanthal and cotton wicks fared much better.

    [​IMG]


    And finally, the full data:

    [​IMG]

    Just for the record, NONE of these hits tasted burnt!

    Properly rebuilt coils are pretty safe temp wise, stock silica coils are NOT, at least according to Wang and Geiss.



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    David Wolf likes this.
  9. Please read through this blog, then you decide if you should trust my credibility or not. I have nothing to gain or loose either way.....

    • My name is Mike Petro, I am 59 years young. I smoked for 40years+, the last 10 years I smoked 5-7 large 50 ring gauge cigars a day, and inhaled every last puff. This was my preferred stogie.
    [​IMG]
    • I am a bit of a geek, when I choose a topic/lover/subject/hobby etc I tend to approach it with great passion. "Do it right, or dont do it at all"
    Educational Background:
    • 1978-1984 - US Navy - Aviation Electronics Technician stationed aboard the USS John F Kennedy - VAW-126. They took the black boxes (radios, radars, etc) out of the "E2C Hawkeye" aircraft and sent them to me for repair. Generally considered to be the equivalent of an Associates Degree.
    • 1984-1986 - Continued my electronics education through Devry
    • 2000 - Was certified as a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. (The highest certification available at the time)

    Experience:
    • 40+ years of electronics repair.
    • 30+ were specialized in the field of Instrumentation & Control.
    • My specialty being the measurement and control of various process variables such as Level, Flow, Temperature, Pressure, Force, Tensions, Weight, pH, Various Gas Concentrations, Various Chemical Concentrations, etc etc
    • Along the way I had to learn a good bit about mechanics, physics, & chemistry, because it is hard to measure and control something you dont understand.
    • In the mid 80s I took up computers (the original PC XT) as a hobby. Process control and Instrumentation gradually started becoming computerized. This became a niche career for me as I knew both worlds, which at the time was quite rare.
    • Today I am the Department Manager of the IT, HVAC, Electrical, and Instrumentation Departments of a multi billion $ Industrial facility.

    Vape Biography:
    • This was the first one I tried, back around 2009/2010, never did get it to work for more than avoiding tobacco for a few hours. Gave up on it after a week or two. Didnt even know ECF existed, my only information came from magazine ads.
    [​IMG]
    • Then I found this around New Years 2013, havent smoked tobacco since the first time I puffed it. I took one puff and realized that "this" could actually work!
    [​IMG]
    • After that has been a long succession of trying most anything that was getting good reviews. I learned how to make my own juice, I learned how to make my own mods, and really I am satisfied with the mid 2016 tech and havent been searching anymore since. I can build that tech to be stronger than I think i would ever desire, but I can also tone it down to that "just right" for me place.
    • Bright and shiny is cool and all, but if I never advanced past where I am at now, I would be perfectly happy.
    ECF Biography:
    • I joined ECF shortly after discovering the Ego could actually work. I looked around and ECF seemed to have the most information at the time.
    • I quickly got involved in Hosting ECF Co-ops. I had a lot of co-op experience from other hobbies, so I just sort of fell right in here, it came naturally. I filled over 700 orders to ECFers, at cost, helping them get quality gear at truly wholesale prices. Everything from Ekowool, to Vamos, to DNA boards, to full DIY Mod Kits.
    [​IMG][​IMG]
    • I am #5 on the list of highest # of "Trades" on all of ECF. Not a single issue the whole time. Alas, between the FDA, and tax complications, my days of hosting co-ops here are done. It was a good run while it lasted, a lot of people got some really good gear real cheap.
    • I built my first mod here in Nov 2013. "The Weekender". DNA20 Mod
    [​IMG]
    • It was the first of about 150 mods I have built since then.
    [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG]
    • All along I have engaged in various "focus groups" exploring new ways to vape, new materials to use, and testing things the best I knew how.
    Why am I investing the time and money to grow these entries?
    • First and foremost, I have an innovative spirit. I am a "hacker" in the true sense of the term (which used to be a good thing). I have hacked everything from coffee machines to fish tanks, to cars, to home automation, so hacking mods just comes naturally.
    • Vaping saved my life, I want to share that with as many as I can.
    • I also see a lot of half baked malarkey being thrown around on the forums. People say things with little to no base of fact behind them. Since I have the skillset to do "sound" testing, I like to prove/disprove things where I can. The more FACTS that I know about vaping, the more I can credibly share.

    Testing Methods:
    • Through my profession I have learned sound & professional methods to test many processes and variables. I apply that knowledge to vaping where I can.
    • I own a lot of quality test equipment of my own, and I also have access to an abundance of high quality Industrial test Equipment.
    • Any serious test is done utilizing equipment that has been calibrated as being traceable back to the NIST.
    • I built this temperature controller. I use it for many things from roasting coffee, to Sous-vide cooking, to measuring precise temps. It consists of a Solo Temperature controller, and in most cases I use a Type K thermocouple for the input. [​IMG]
    • Fluke 725 Process Calibrator used to calibrate/certify the AutomationDiirect Solo Temperature Controller
    • upload_2017-6-9_11-25-46.png
    • upload_2017-6-9_11-12-31.png
    • upload_2017-7-14_22-47-8.png
    • [​IMG]
    • [​IMG]
    • [​IMG]
    • upload_2017-6-9_11-14-1.jpeg
    • upload_2017-6-9_11-14-15.jpeg
    • [​IMG]
    • [​IMG]

    Full Disclosure:
    • I am not affiliated with any company related to vaping whatsoever. Some may call me an Evolv Fanboy because I like (and believe in) Evolv products, but I am not affiliated with them or anybody else beyond being a customer.
    • I have NEVER profited off of any sale on ECF, or any other vaping venue. Quite simply, I am not in this for the money. Money can destroy a good passion and I made the conscious decision not to let that happen with vaping.
    • In fact, I rarely even ask for donations to cover testing supplies. I have been investing hundreds if not thousands of my own money to perform the various testing I do. The only thing I generally will ask for is hardware pieces that people want tested. I dont mind doing the testing, but I am not going to buy YOUR specific atty just so I can test it for YOU. Now, send me one to test, and all is good.
    • I do test Beta Mods for Evolv from time to time to help them find bugs. This is not a paid gig, I do get a mod out of it, but trust me, I pay for that mod with many hours of testing. Beyond this, I do not test for vendors or manufacturers. You will never see me "shilling" for ANYBODY.

    [​IMG]




    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    MacTechVpr, CMD-Ky, ENAUD and 16 others like this.
  10. Context:

    The RCP announcement got widely publicized as meaning that vaping was 95% safer than smoking, however the detail and context of the entire report has not been talked about nearly as much.

    From the Royal College of Physicians, 11 St Andrews Place, Regent's Park, London NW1 4LE

    "E-cigarettes and long-term harm - the possibility of some harm from long-term e-cigarette use cannot be dismissed due to inhalation of the ingredients other than nicotine, but is likely to be very small, and substantially smaller than that arising from tobacco smoking. With appropriate product standards to minimise exposure to the other ingredients, it should be possible to reduce risks of physical health still further. Although it is not possible to estimate the long-term health risks associated with e-cigarettes precisely, the available data suggest that they are unlikely to exceed 5% of those associated with smoked tobacco products, and may well be substantially lower than this figure."

    Please note the part highlighted in green. What they are saying is that there is "probably" more we can do to make vaping even safer!

    Also note this statement from the University of Cambridge Cancer Institute:

    "We also know that different users use different devices and liquids. So it could be that some are safer or more harmful than others. And people also use the devices in different ways. So further work needs to be done to understand these differences, so that each vaper is using their device as safely as possible."

    Now, two new studies have come out by Wang and Guiss that suggest that carcinogens (like formaldehyde) start getting produced at high temperatures. I have proven, in some of my other blog posts, that our coils can indeed reach these temperatures quite easily (without being Dry Hits).

    IMHO, the best way to avoid high temperatures is to use a TC mod and set the temp below 450f (ish). However, if you dont choose this option for whatever reason, I have attempted to compile a set of "Best Practices" that a VV/VW mod user can employ to help keep their temperatures at lower levels.

    "Best Practices"
    • Avoid "Stock Silica Coils".
      • Silca has been proven in test after test to be sub standard in transporting juice. If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod. "Stock" silica wicks have proven to be horrible performers and will almost always result in potentially dangerous high temps.
    • Avoid Chain Hitting
      • Chain hitting a non TC mod will definitely, and sometimes very significantly increase the coil temperature, regardless of voltage or wattage settings. I have proven this with direct thermocouple measurements. What happens is the coil doesnt get a chance to cool between chain hits, so subsequent hits are already starting with a preheated coil. The more chain hits in a row, the hotter the coil will get each time.
    • Diligently replace/clean your coil when they get gunked.
      • Gunked coils inhibit heat transfer, and the most common reaction is for a user to increase their power to compensate for the weaker hit, resulting in higher coil temps.
      • There is also data that suggests that burning the carbonized junk on a coil gives off its own set of extra nasties.
      • Juices with high percentages of flavoring, certain specific flavors (often darker ones), and high levels of sweeteners, are known for gunking coils faster.
      • If your hit seems to be getting weaker, check your coil for gunk.
    • Ensure good coil saturation via good wicking
      • If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod. The more power hungry your coil, the better your wicking needs to be. Silica is a bad choice for wicking, if you have the option, do select something else.
    • Select a lower boiling point juice if you have a "variable" (VV or VW) mod.
      • What a lower boiling point juice allows you to do is "lower your settings" to achieve a similarly satisfying hit, which will result in lower temperatures. Lower point liquids include those with lower VG content, or if high VG then diluted with 5-10% of distilled water.
    • If using a top coil tank, take a few extra precautions
      • Refill when tank is no more than half empty.
      • ALWAYS do a swirl to ensure that the exposed wick is fully saturated before every hit.
    • Take shorter, even if more frequent, hits.
      • The longer the hit the higher the temperature gets, this has been proven via accurate instrumentation.

    Using these "Best Practices" will greatly reduce the probability of venturing into the questionable higher temperature ranges.


    There are actually about 18 variables that affect coil temperatures in a VV/VW mod. A major one is air flow across the coil. Please see this blog for more info if you are interested.



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Wayneo, KGie, lamarrk and 7 others like this.
  11. Note: the context of this entry is trying to increase the understanding of VV and VW coil temperatures. Studies by Wang and Guiss suggest that carcinogens (like formaldehyde) start getting produced at high temperatures. I have proven, in some of my other blog posts, that our coils can indeed reach these temperatures quite easily. If you run a TC mod then you know what temp you running, but if you dont then the questions come up of "what temp is my Mod running".

    I am a firm believer in TC Mods, but for those who dont have them I have tried to identify all of the variables that affect the coil temperature in a VV/VW mod.
    *************************************************************

    My objective is to show clearly, all of the variables that affect the temperature in a VV or VW Mod. I excluded TC mods because, well, you already know the temp on those. Based on what I have put together so far, I count 18 distinct variables, any one of which could result in a coil temperature change.

    A key concept, is that if you change ANY single variable, you could change the resulting temperature. This is what makes it so hard to accurately answer "how hot is my XYZ Mod getting".

    I have explained the variables in a little more detail below the graphic.
    upload_2017-6-3_23-26-49.png


    Atty Variables:
    Resistance
    • With all else being equal, changing the resistance of your coil (using a different cartridge for example) will definitely change the resulting temperature.
    Material
    • Different wires have different "heat fluxes". In other words, you can run two different wires at the exact sames 4.1volts, and one type of wire might burn hotter than the other. Steam-Engine is a great place to research the various properties of different kinds of wire.
    Design
    • How wide are the coils spaced, is it a contact coil, is it a clapton coil? These are all examples of different coil designs. Different designs will change the temperature with all else being equal.
    Cleanliness
    • Is it a new coil, or an old gunked up coil. When your coil gets gunked, clean or replace promptly. Gunked coils inhibit heat transfer, and the most common reaction is for a user to increase their power, resulting in a higher coil temp. There is also data that suggests that burning the carbonized junk on a coil also gives off nasties.
    Atty Design
    • A CE4 is different than Protank, which is different than a Kayfun, which is different than an Aromamizer. There are hundreds of different designs on the market. With all else being equal, these drastically different designs will affect the resulting temperature at the coil.
    Airflow Design
    • Some attys have small airholes, some have large slots, some have bottom airflow, side airflow, or top airflow. The bottom line is that, with all else being equal, if you change the velocity, volume, or pattern of air blowing over the coil it will likely affect the temperature on a non TC Mod.
    Juice Channel
    • Different attys have different types of juice supply channels. Some are quite large, others quite small. Some atty designs will also create a vacuum in the coil chamber that effectively helps pull juice into the chamber. Depending on your other variables like coil, wattage, and juice viscosity, juice flow can be a critical factor. If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod.
    Wick Material
    • There are many materials in use for wicking including silica, hemp, ramie, cotton, rayon, ceramic, and more. Changing materials can improve or degrade your attys ability to supply juice. If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod. The more power hungry your coil, the better your wicking needs to be.
    Wick Density
    • This is how hard, or tight, you are packing your wick. Different materials need different handling. For example rayon tends to shrink after it gets wet, so you should pack it tighter, cotton tends to swell so you should leave it fluffier, silica just sucks. Anyway, if you dont adjust the density of your wick to match the material then you can negatively affect juice supply. If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod.
    Juice Viscosity
    • The viscosity of your juice has to match your wicking system. High VG is thicker, high PG is thinner. If you starve a coil for juice, the temperature WILL rise on a non-TC mod. If your juice is too thin you could flood your atty, which will also change temp.
    Ambient Temperature
    • Depending on your ratios, ambient temperature can negatively affect juice supply by changing its viscosity. On a very cold day a heavy VG juice will not flow well at all. On a really hot day a heavy PG juice could flood your tank and even leak. Either way, with all else being equal, it can change the temp of your coil.

    User Discipline:
    MTL vs DL
    • Mouth to Lung versus Direct Lung hits definitely change the airflow going across the coil. For example, I measured 10 times more pressure differential when doing Direct Lung hits. Again, if you change the airflow you will affect the temp of a coil on a non TC mod.
    Strength/Volume
    • This is similar to the above, but more subtle. What we are talking about is how HARD are you hitting the mod. More volume and/or velocity of air and you will affect the temp of a coil on a non TC mod.
    Chain Hits
    • Chain hitting a non TC mod will definitely, and sometimes very significantly increase the coil temperature. I have proven this with direct thermocouple measurements. What happens is the coil doesnt get a chance to cool between chain hits, so subsequent hits are already starting with a preheated coil. The more chain hits in a row, the hotter the coil will get each time.
    Length
    • How long of a hit are you taking. I have proven that in most cases, the longer the hit, the hotter a coil gets in a non TC mod.
    User selection of Air/Juice Flow
    • On many attys, the air and/or juice flowrate is adjustable. Changing these settings will affect the temperature of your coil. Could be hotter or cooler, it depends on what and how you adjust.
    User’s technique in assembling
    • This applies more to rebuidable or DIY type setups. The technique you use to build a coil, or wick it, any little "mods" you make (like poking holes in the cotton on a cartridge), can definitely affect the coil temperature.
    User selected settings on Mod
    • In other words, what Volt or Watt level are you setting it at.



    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
  12. Note: the context of this test was in trying to understand why Dr Kurt @Kurt found so many carcinogens in Gen 2 devices, and hardly any in Gen 3 devices. Most Gen 2 devices used silica in a top coil configuration, where Gen 3 introduced cotton, and other materials, in bottom coil configurations.
    *************************************************************

    OK, so the "capillary" action of silica vs modern alternatives was killing me, couldnt get it out of my head all day. So whats a geek to do? TEST!

    • Stock silica from a VV nova was 5cm long and weighed 0.09g
    • I cut a length of rayon to match, 5cm long and 0.09g in weight
    • Mixed some 50/50 pg/vg juice with a dab of pro food coloring
    • Placed each sample inside of an identical clear tube
    • Placed both tubes in a beaker and added juice
    I am not a videographer, and this is a new phone so forgive the poor quality. It shows the start of the test, but I accidentally cut the camera off before it was finished.



    So I waited a few minutes and took a still pic:

    [​IMG]

    Notice the juice had barely got about half way up the silica, but if you looked from top down you could see the juice had reached the very top of the rayon.

    So I weighed the juice content of each wick since I knew the tare weights.
    • Silica wick contained 0.33g of liquid
    • Rayon wick contained 1.2g of liquid
    The poor performance of silica might well be the culprit in the Gen 2 tests performed by Dr Kurt. I.e. coil was being starved for juice.


    *************************************
    OK, I am officially sticking my neck out here! If you care about coil temp, and some evidence says you should, DO NOT USE STOCK COILS that rely on silica wicks!
    *************************************

    So I did another test, comparing rayon and silica in a modern atty.

    This time I built a coil, then used the exact same atty, mod, coil, and juice, the ONLY change was swapping out the wick. I used Ekowool braided silica which is considered to be the most premium available. (Keep in mind that stock wicks use the cheap stuff)

    • Measured only in watts as my Vamo did not like the low resistance of the coil, so I had to use my DNA in power mode instead.
    • Coils was a 6/7 wrap of SS430 around a #33 drillbit (~2.9mm) and ohmed out to be 0.43 ohms. Same exact coil used for both wicks. I just rewicked the coil.
    • Did not measure fiber weight, I prepared each wick like I would have done if I was building it for myself. Cut to proper length and fluffed and tucked on both, etc.
    • Juice flow was 80% for all tests.
    • Airflow was 100% for all tests.
    Silica SUCKS (or rather - it doesnt!)


    Test Results:
    [​IMG]


    Test Porn:
    Threaded the probe
    [​IMG]

    Built the first wick
    [​IMG]

    Ready to test:
    [​IMG]

    Shows silica was fully saturated:
    [​IMG]

    Type of silica used:
    [​IMG]





    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Attached Files:

    LilWhiteClouder and cigatron like this.
  13. As promised, a follow up to the wick test. The last test was mainly to show how poor silica is compared to modern wicking materials. The context being that poor silica performance might have significantly contributed to why Dr Kurt's Gen 2 results detected so much formaldehyde.

    On this test I took the 4 best performers from a recent test and matched them head to head.

    Test Conditions:
    • 50/50 PG/VG mix (no nic)
    • Each wick trimmed to about 1.5 inches
    • 0.11g of fiber in each wick
    • Coil (spring) was 3mm ID
    • A rig that kept them suspended, and submerged in the liquid, without touching anything else that could have influenced capillary.
    Samples from left to right are:
    1. VCC Vapers Choice
    2. Rayon (big box from Sally's)
    3. Native Wicks Platinum Blend
    4. Koh Gen Do organic cotton pad (outer skins removed)

    Results:
    • Initial Capillary: (defined as how fast the fluid rises through the wick)
      1. Rayon
      2. Koh Gen Do
      3. Native Wicks Platinum (actually a very close 2nd IMHO)
      4. VCC Vapers Choice
    • Capacity: (defined as g of fluid held in the wick after soaking 1 hour)
      1. KGD - 3.22g (this stuff was a juice sponge)
      2. Native Wicks - 2.69g
      3. VCC Vapers Choice - 2.13g
      4. Rayon - 1.72g
    Overall winner, you choose, by capacity it is KGD, by initial capillary it is rayon.

    I am sticking with the fast capillary action of my rayon. Other factors like flavor, longevity, and scorch temp still make this my fave. As @awsum140 pointed out "I think for us tankers the transport ability of rayon is best but for the drippers holding more liquid is a big advantage."

    My take: Drippers and squonkers might want to look at KGD, Tankers might want to look at Rayon. As always, YMMV.....

    Test Porn:
    [​IMG]

    From Start of test until 10 minute mark:



    After 20 minutes:

    [​IMG]

    After 30 minutes:

    [​IMG]

    After 40 minutes:

    [​IMG]


    After 50 minutes:

    [​IMG]


    After 60 minutes:

    [​IMG]





    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
  14. upload_2017-6-9_6-45-35.png

    First, you will notice a different format than my previous tests. Today's test represents about 9 solid hours of testing, it takes time to figure out how to insert the tiny probes in those tiny cartridges, and still be able to actually vape the device, lots of trial and error. Anyway, it would have added another hour or three if I would have included all the pretty pictures and graphs. Those of of you who have followed along are aware of the methodology and the equipment I use. If you are just joining the party, please view this blog entry for details on how I am performing my testing.



    Test Porn:
    The way I rigged this particular atty was I heated a sewing needle red hot and made a tiny hole in the tank to slip the probe through. Then I inserted the probe inside the coil.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    The results of the test show representative temperatures, when using a VV or VW device, for 3 different stock coils on the Vivi Nova 2.5, while possibly similar they DO NOT represent any other atty or coil.
    • High temperatures are definitely possible without tasting anything bad.
    • Chain vaping SIGNIFICANTLY increased temperature
    • Wick saturation could be very finicky, if wick wasnt saturated it SIGNIFICANTLY increased temperature. It is IMPERATIVE that you do the swirl, or genny tilt, or some method to make sure each and every hit starts with a fully saturated wick.
    • Tank level had significant affect on temperature, presumably related to wick saturation
    • Low mass of coil allowed almost complete cool down in 1 minute, so wait at least a minute between puffs.Chain puffing is VERY bad, high temperatures are almost assured.
    • Making voltage adjustments (on the Provari, might not be applicable to other mods) did send voltage to the mod while adjusting, so if you made an adjustment and instantly hit it, it was the similar to a chain vape, ie high temp.
    • VW hits were much more consistent from hit to hit, where temp on VV varying a lot more at the same settings.
    Conclusion for all Tootle Attys:

    All of that being said, I do remind those who are interested in the safest vape possible, that these devices are NOT the best choice.

    Lets set the controversial Wang Study aside for a second, though I still believe there is something to it. Our own Dr Kurt PhD, @Kurt here on ECF, who is very much an emissary for vaping, has clearly shown that Gen 2 (ie top coil), and some Gen 3 devices, are not the best choice.

    upload_2017-5-27_22-50-17.png
    ©2017 Dr. Kurt

    upload_2017-5-27_22-50-32.png
    ©2017 Dr. Kurt

    Formaldehyde Emissions EXCEEDED SMOKING
    at ANY power level on Gen 2 devices!

    To each their own vape, having the information to make informed decisions is good too!




    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    cigatron likes this.
  15. Specifications:
    • Kangertech Nano atomizer
    • Factory 1.5ohm nichrome coil
    • 36awg thermocouple threaded through AFC hole, resting directly on coil
    • Recorded by NIST traceable Solo Temperature Controller (Calibration data can be seen in this post)
    • Testing done with AFC about 1/3 for MTL vaping
    • Targeted 2-3 second puffs, but they were somewhat varied (kinda hard to do repeatably), each puff length is documented though
    • Juice was a 36mg/ml 50/50 pg/vg
    upload_2017-5-13_19-1-46.jpeg

    upload_2017-5-13_18-58-6.png



    10w, ~2 sec puffs, allowed 2 minute cool down between puffs
    upload_2017-5-13_19-41-49.png


    11w, ~2 sec puffs, allowed 2 minute cool down between puffs
    upload_2017-5-13_19-45-16.png



    12w, ~3.3 sec puff, allowed 2 minute cool down then ~ 2sec puff then 1 minute cooldown then 3.6sec puff
    upload_2017-5-13_19-55-35.png



    13w, ~3.6 sec puff, allowed 2 minute cool down then chained vaped a couple hits
    upload_2017-5-13_20-1-20.png



    14w, ~5.1 sec puff, allowed 2 minute cool down then 3.1 sec puff then chained vaped a couple hits
    upload_2017-5-13_20-47-35.png


    15w, ~3.5 sec puff, allowed 2 minute cool down then 4.2 sec puff then chained vaped a couple hits

    upload_2017-5-13_20-53-52.png


    16w, ~3.1 sec puff, allowed 2 minute cool down then 4.3 sec puff then chained vaped a couple hits
    (Note, I did not inhale the chainvape hits, I just puffed them, and I did taste the burnt flavor. On this cartridge style coil I could not tell if the wick was saturated or not, but I am assuming it was because when I removed it the organic cotton did not look burnt.)
    upload_2017-5-13_21-1-28.png




    ©2017 Mike Petro. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.