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Viewing blog entries in category: Unregulated mods, rebuildable atomizers

  • State O' Flux
    That's right folks, Lars is just now putting on the finishing touches to some new features in the coil program. The most useful will be a "Suggested Wattage" cell that will offer a wattage recommendation based on wire gauge and coils in parallel.

    What this means is that, for people who don't grasp the concept of wire gauge and coil count in parallel having an effect on heat flux and heat capacity... the program math will sort it out for you, with a range of wattage (or voltage) recommendations.
    You still need to understand what HF & HC are (see SE user guide parts one and two)... but these folks will no longer be using too thick or thin a gauge, or too little or many coils... ending up with a far too hot or too cool vape, or one that seemingly takes an eternity to reach operating temperature.

    These new features will be beneficial for both unregulated and regulated mod users.

    I'll be updating this article and others as the SE changes take effect.

    Cheers!
    FilthyPazuzu, Susan~S and Mooch like this.
  • State O' Flux
    After I responded to an interesting thread found here... I started thinking about the (highly unlikely) chances of truly identical multi-coil builds - considering how atomizers are made and the individual components that go to make up the whole - where heating lag time from coil to coil is... should be, for all intents and purposes, identical.

    What elements of an RDA - or any multi-coil atomizer for that matter - and "build methodology", will lead to improving the chances of identical individual coils in a parallel build?

    To "test" an atomizer, or individual coils for that matter - will be not only impractical, but fairly difficult and even costly - due to the nature of how atomizers are designed, and how we fit coils.
    Some of the methods I'll mention will be wildly impractical and unlikely to be followed by anyone - including myself, an OCD geezer with time on his hands - so this is more an exercise in fanaticism. ;-)

    • Atomizers with "monobloc construction" - negative terminals machined as part of the atomizer base will have reduced variation in resistance vs. atomizers with pressed or screwed in terminals. This first one is entirely reasonable, and quite common, even with cheap clones.
    • Atomizers with monobloc positive individual post holes (machined from a single piece of metal, with multiple fixing holes/screws), or single "common point wire attachment" terminals will have reduced resistance variation vs. positive terminals with multi-element construction. Another, not uncommon practice.
    • Individual coils, made in such a fashion that the tension applied can be measured, so that the stretch rate of the wire will be identical, one coil to the next. This isn't too unreasonable when you realize that the Jon Kuro's "KuroKoiler" and super_x_drifter's coil manufacturing methodology provides some level of repeatable, wire tension consistency.
    Moving on to the (far) less likely...

    • Screw (female) threads and (male) threaded terminals... manufactured with a goal of high precision - identical engagement - rather than mass produced at a scale intended to meet practical economic requirements.
    • Torque values of individual wire fastening points. Yes, you read that right... torque values, as in identical inch-pound values of torque applied at each terminal. Chance of this happening - considering the investment in a low value, precision torque screwdriver - near zero, unless you own this tool already.
    • Individual testing by the manufacturer, for milliohm variations - within limited acceptable parameters - of each and every wire fastening point. Not holding my breath on this one.
    • Measurements of coil tails, from coil main body to terminal attachment point - with a goal of length consistency - to the one hundredths of a millimeter place. Another highly unlikely event, even if one owns a quality digital caliper.
    • Thinking of other ways to do this quickly and easily... one could develop a "length spacer" - made from a material I've not come up with a good answer for - that pre-sets the leg (or tail) length of each coil... then dissolves when heat is applied, with no toxic residue.
    • Another method might be a plastic or metal "standard" that one could hold next to a coil leg, insuring that each leg is near identical in installed length.
    That's about all I can think of... if you want to play this game, think of other materials and methods, and include the chances of your ideas actually being used. :laugh:
  • State O' Flux
    A few days ago, this post popped up... with my answer to follow.

    Although you provide no detail regarding your net resistance and wire gauge used... everything you need to be successful at higher wattages can be found in Ohm's law formulas, the Steam Engine coil modeling program... and an understanding of "heat flux". Heat flux is a number representative of coil radiant heat, expressed in milliwatts per millimeter squared.

    I'll offer one example, which will apply to all comparisons, regardless of the variables, save for the constant of heat flux.

    If you have a 32 gauge single coil at 1.8Ω, 8 watts is plenty for producing a "nicely warm" heat flux of 317 mW/mm².
    To reduce that temperature, all one needs to do is lower the wattage, and/or increase the resistance value.

    Why the hell is sub-ohm so damn popular?

    To put it bluntly, sub-ohm or "high-performance vaping" is so damn popular because of increased coil surface area and higher heat values.

    The net coil surface area of the above build/wattage is 23.95 mm². Flavor and vapor concentration, for a given heat flux, are commensurate with surface area.

    With sub-ohm, it's not so much the amount of heat you can produce (although in some instances, it's advantageous), but rather the increase in net coil surface area, along with the amount of wick exposed to that surface area.

    If our net surface area is twice that (or more) of the previous 32 gauge build... it would stand to reason that for the same heat flux, you'll produce twice the flavor concentration and vapor volume and/or density.

    Is it a true 2:1 or more ratio? Not exactly. There are assorted losses, but depending on the juice PG/VG ratios used, along with a few other physical and electrical variables... empirical observations indicate that it's not too far off.

    To obtain an 317 mW/mm²+/- heat flux from say, 40 watts, one of many optional possibilities would be... a 27 gauge, dual parallel coil build of 0.4Ω net resistance - producing a 313 mW/mm² heat flux.

    In this example, the juice vaporization potential more than doubles from our previous 1.8Ω build - with a net surface area of 61.55 mm² - an additional 37.6 mm² of net coil surface area.

    Use Steam Engine to run any set of comparable high & low resistance numbers you wish. To obtain a valid surface area comparison, adjust wire gauge, parallel coil count, net resistance and wattage, with the goal of obtaining relatively constant HF values... try to stay in a 10 mW/mm² plus/minus window.

    That's All Folks! :D

    (If you have any questions, please PM me. If the question and response merit sharing with others, they will be added to this article. Thanks)
    FilthyPazuzu and Ryedan like this.
  • State O' Flux
    Notice! With the change in forum software, we're not limited to 10,000 characters per article... so this article is now part of the original part one article.

    Steam Engine: Basic & advanced features: Pts. One & Two | E-Cigarette Forum

    Thanks for taking a look... cheers!
    Ryedan likes this.
  • State O' Flux
    For a long time now, we've seen threads -

    "What size are the o-rings on a fill in the blank atomizer?" or,
    "What size are the magnets on a fill in the blank mod?"... or the broadest of inquiries,
    "I need to measure anything you can think of that might need accurate measuring... how can I do that?"

    More often than not, if these inquiries even get a response... it's from a member who owns both the device in question, and a dial or digital caliper... and is willing put forth time and effort to take some measurements. (that or some douche spouting useless blather, just looking for a post count bump)

    Time was, only engineers and machinists owned and used vernier... and later dial, and now digital calipers. The initial costs of quality measuring tools, at one time kept them out of the hands of hobby class users. That has changed.
    These days for as little as $12, you can get a dial caliper with 0.002" (0.04mm) resolution. 0.001" resolution is common place for around $100, and - in the hands of an experienced user - down to 0.0005" or less resolution, for a digital caliper costing no more than $250.

    My point? If you are a RBA, RTA, RDA, mech mod... or otherwise "advanced aficionado" of vaping products, this is a tool - much like a DMM, ceramic tweezers, thread gauge, butane torch or o-ring fabrication kits - that belongs in your bag O' tricks. Without dial or digital calipers - like being electrically "blind" without a DMM - you are dimensionally blind.

    So, rather than resort to asking the most base of questions... in the hopes that someone - with both device, calipers and enough empathy for your sad plight - will take the time to measure... drop $25 and get your own.

    Cheers!

    P.S.... Do you build your own coils? You do! Great! Ever wonder why your builds will often come out different from the calculated values generated by a Steam Engine build model?
    Ready for it? Did you obtain a decent caliper or micrometer? Measure your coil wire. Now compare that measurement to the default value for the gauge, as indicated in Steam Engine. Not the same is it... there's the reason your builds always seem a little off. [​IMG]
    Ryedan likes this.
  • State O' Flux
    RBA, RDA, RTA... oh my! For those folks that are new (and semi-new) to RBAs, what are they and how do they work?

    I could delve into the history of the RBA, but I imagine that most of my "gentle readers" don't really care about history - rather a bit of definition for what is available now. I'll also toss in a few bits of editorial commentary for the reader to ponder.

    I apologize if I don't mention "your" atomizer. In the scope of this short article, I can't cover every atomizer design made, so I'm focusing on what the blue collar "Joe Vapist" is buying now.
    If this annoys you, write your own elitist POS article. :2cool:

    First, lets define what an RBA is. An RBA is any atomizer, designed so that the wick and coil elements are, to a large degree... at your discretion.
    Beginning around the fall of 2014, you can buy RTAs with your choice of ready to go coil/heads, or the option of a DIY RBA head. You can start off with know RBA experience and just use the supplied coil/head assemblies... and at your discretion, learn how to produce your own builds.The Kanger Subtank and Subtank mini are good examples of this relatively new genre of "user optional" atomizers.

    Beats the hell out of trying to rebuild a clearo/glasso that was never intended to be rebuilt... don't it?

    Some will require, due to their design, a specific shape or even specific coil and/or wicking material, but for the most part... it's builders choice, hence the name "rebuildable atomizer".

    They can be a rebuildable dripping atomizer, like the ubiquitous and still hugely popular JPGE Nimbus... or a genesis type atomizer - the Smoktech RSST being a popular entry level example, or a tank type atomizer or "RTA" - as represented by perhaps the most popular RTA ever made - the SvoeMesto Kayfun.
    In the last few paragraphs, I'll include a few RBAs that fall into a, mostly undefined category - the "top-filler-to-wick" atomizer.

    The RDA.
    In basic design, a dripping atomizer or RDA, is the simplest form of atomizer. They do not have a built-in, semi-sealed or sealed juice container or tank. You build your coil(s) and wick(s), drip juice from your bottle onto the wick... and vape away. When the draws start to taste a bit dry and less flavorful, it's time to drip in more juice.

    The upside of RDAs are that they allow practically any coil - shape, quantity and resistance values are limited only by the number of terminal posts and the size of the build deck. The wicking materials used are unlimited as well - from "roll-yer'-own" cotton ball to ceramic rod or rope... it's your call.
    The downside to RDAs is that they don't have a juice container - with even the deepest juice wells holding no more than 30 or so drops of juice. RDAs can leak, and will require that you have a separate juice bottle at your disposal.

    "Drivin' and drippin' can be a dangerous habit to develop - particularly with a manual trans, or motorcycle. :ohmy:

    Still hugely popular, but... as drippers become larger, more refined and complicated, what will they turn into - something else entirely?

    The Genesis RBA
    A genesis atomizer is a device made from necessity - and a "Eureka moment". We look at the dripping atomizers greatest negative, a lack of juice container - and think, "how do I get around carrying a juice bottle and dripping?" - with the answer being... "lets just attach a juice tank to the bottom of an RDA, and run the wick down into it!!!!" And that's how the "genesis" was born.

    OK... maybe it wasn't quite that simple. :p

    Genesis atomizers have some limitations and requirements. Because the liquid tank is not sealed, if you tip it over or upside-down, juice may leak... or even pour out the wick hole or tank vent port.
    Because they essentially feed from the bottom up, you may need to "tip" the atomizer to get juice up to the portion of wick that is wrapped by the coil. Wick materials and design become more important in that capillary action is a critical consideration.

    Stainless steel mesh and rope, as well as ceramic rods are popular wick materials, as they can provide a balance of adequate, but not excessive, capillary action.
    There are new and interesting variations of genesis atomizers introduced every day. Some that are guaranteed not to leak and some with tanks on top.

    "Genny's" have lost a lot of love in the past year or so... mostly due to the next RBA on our list.

    The RTA - "tank" atomizer
    All of the popular tank type atomizers can be defined using another term... they all operate on the principal of "pressure differential". The hyperlink is to an article on how pressure differential or "PD" tanks work.
    For those that don't want to read the entire PD article, in short and sweet terms... positive pressure (in the air venting system) and negative pressure (in the liquid tank) are held separate - yet balance... serving to feed juice, in appropriate quantities, to the wick. The wick itself may aid in this function, acting as a seal between the two pressures.

    Added 7-1-14: (Sorry... I'm about 2 months behind in adding this)
    If you've not heard of it, don't feel too bad... because the Highwinds Ruzgar, and it's recently introduced clone (first one... anticipate better quality ones) have been a bit under the radar. Think of it as a top fill, glass tanked evolution of the KFL. It doesn't have AFC, but the genuine one I tried had air flow on par with a stock Kebo R91%.

    The previously mentioned Kayfun is one of the 'true' pressure differential atomizers, in that the design does not use the wick as a seal, but rather only the "boundary layer", established by juice channel orifice size, to keep the pressure, and juice, separate.
    Other popular PD tank atomizers, like the Stattqualm sQuape and Taifun GT use orifice size restriction as well, but in concert with the wick, which, not unlike a glassomizer coil/head assembly, serves to define that restriction.

    "Filler" type RBAs.
    OK... I'll be honest here, I'm not sure what to call them. Gravity tanks, top-filler-to-wick tanks, capillary tanks - are any accurate enough to stick?

    This category is populated with atomizers like the VapourArt GP Spheroid, early version GP Heron and Gus Aiolos... which can be considered closer to genesis atomizers than RTAs, because they do not use pressure differential or a true liquid tank, but rather a filler material, usually "cerawool", to both hold juice, and feed the wick.

    Interestingly enough, the latest version GP Heron, with the addition of a spacer/separator, or as VapourArt calls it - "a topper that works as a reducer and cotton feeder at the same time" - this after-the-fact part, aside from the stated design intent, creates the potential for a seal between liquid storage and vaporization chamber.
    This seal, depending on the build, may be sufficient to create and hold a negative pressure, effectively turning the atomizer into a semi-PD type tank... but one where the pressure variance is not used to feed juice. There is a Heron clone available now from FT.

    5-5-2014 Addendum.
    There's a relatively new atty on the market made by GUS in Greece, called the Estia.
    It is a PD atty, and is designed around 3 coils with 6 wick tips "in the juice"... with the highest air flow of any RTA to date. It's currently the very best RTA I've ever used... and as close to a good RDA as one can buy.
    Not much else I need to say, because qorax has done a very well photographed, slightly gushy and subjective, but never the less informative review here.
    If you get a chance, take a look at the Inverno Erlkönigin review too. I don't know qorax, but I know he does two things very well... buys the latest cool attys, and produces some very well photographed reviews.

    The Fogger V4 came out a month or so ago. This is a dual coil atty... and I mention it in the same breath as the Estia, because it's, well... quite a flavorful vape for such a low cost atty.
    It doesn't have the air flow, features or quality of fit and finish of a genuine RTA, but it's 1/5th the price... and easily one of the best performing clones you can get. Only the single coil, genuine Taifun GT is on par.
    Due to it's low price, there are many threads in the RBA forums on this atty... so find one, and read.

    I return and update as things change... stay tuned.

    As always, take it for what it is, do with it what you will. Cheers!
    FilthyPazuzu likes this.
  • State O' Flux
    It is not voodoo, or related to internal combustion engines - it's the way the wire is designed - and this "feature" of Kanthal ('A' series, including A-1 and AE) has been well known since before you or I were born... and just one of the qualities that make it so common and useful. ;-)

    When heated, Kanthal wire (iron-chromium-aluminum) builds up an aluminum oxide insulative coating on it's outside surface that protects the individual coils from shorting, one to another. This is called alumina (Al2O3).

    This is most clearly noticed when you test fire a new compressed coil... the coil initially shorts and heats unevenly. The more you fire it (and shape it to final perfection) however, the more evenly it will heat - from the hot center out to the cooler ends.
    This is the alumina layer developing and insulating the coils surface. Although the coils are "touching", the electrically conductive component of the coils are insulated by the alumina coating.

    That is it. No magic... unless a self-generating, protective oxide layer is considered magic. Maybe it is magic - Kanthal wire is both thermally conductive and electrically resistive. Pretty convenient for us, and several billion other handy applications for heating coils.

    Consider as well... for a given length and thickness of wire, the resistance does not change whether it's a 7 wrap conventional coil or a 7 wrap compressed coil.
    Again... resistance for a given length does not change any appreciable amount.

    What does change is the amount of heat the "compressed coil" is capable of generating. Reduced to a short, concentrated segment or element, the heat generated for a given resistance/area can be greater than the sum of parts.
    Why you ask? The simplest of answers.

    As stated, we have concentrated the heat generated by the individual coils into that smaller, more cohesive heat generating "element".
    If you're still on the fence, consider this analogy. Ten matches, lit and separated by 1 inch per match, generate the heat of... 1 match or individual heat source per inch.
    Now, ten lit matches, all within one square inch... 10 times the heat concentration / compressed down to one square inch.

    Last, although "micro" is used to define a small diameter (1.5mm or 1/16" - or less), compressed coil heating element, you can compress a larger diameter vaporizer coil and have the same result of greater heat concentration for a given dimension of resistance/area occupied.

    That's it. Share if you want, or keep the "magic" to yourself and continue to be entertained by the voodoo explanations. It is fun, ain't it?

    You might be thinking, "boy SOF, you are one smart SOB".
    Well, maybe... but I didn't invent Kanthal, and I'm not the first on ECF to comment about the wonders of the Kanthal wire design (for which there is a vast supply of interesting history and applications... if you like reading about such things that is).

    After writing this, I was both generally curious - and because terms tend to be specific with this subject, didn't want to publish if there might be an impression that I was plagiarizing. I don't have much... but I do have a annoyingly huge sense of integrity.
    So... I typed in "aluminum oxide layer electronic cigarette forum" (among other combinations) into Google (it parses down better than the ECF search engine) and the first to pop up (of perhaps more?) was a
    post by LucentShadow.

    So you see, not only not magic, but not a secret either.
    _______________________________
    Addendum for 12-17-2015: Something you will likely run into is that, when comparing your actual net resistance to the default resistance found for a given gauge of Kanthal wire... your actual doesn't match the default.
    This is likely not any mistake you've made, but more likely to be a manufacturing variance in gauge thickness. Every single gauge of genuine, Temco sourced, Sandvik Kanthal A-1 wire I have on hand is not as thick as the default given in Steam Engine.
    For example: Item number RW0249, 24 gauge Sandvik Kanthal A-1 has a listed "average" thickness of .0201/.511mm... which is what Steam Engine uses as a default.
    The 4 rolls I have - which were obtained over the course of several months and not likely to be from the same production date - measure from a low of .018"/.465mm to a high of .019"/.494mm, but none match the average dimension.
    So... always measure your wire with a caliper or mic, and if not the same or very close... substitute that value for the default. In Steam Engine, the gauge number box will change to "N/A", but with the right or "corrected" value, your measured resistance will be far closer to calculated.

    Mooch likes this.
  • State O' Flux
    This is about all copper China mech mod clones. Not necessarily about copper and SS or copper and brass - but all solid copper tubes & top/bottom caps as well.

    As it erks me to see uninformed people pissing away money on trendy crap - then complain because there $20 mech isn't as well made as a $200 mech... if you have the time and energy, read on...

    Copper tubes and even end caps/buttons are the current - and not done yet - rage with mech mods. Copper however, in many of it's forms, is relatively soft... and I imagine some, but certainly not all, are aware of this.

    Yes, there are the high end, C101 oxygen free and various alloyed copper (and bronze) variations, that if used, stand up nicely as the building material of a mech... but even at rock bottom discounts, these are still at a price likely 4 times that of typical clone prices.

    As you can imagine... with clones, it's a different story. Going in, we can be safe in assuming, unless otherwise noted, that the copper used in a China clone mech mod will probably be rather soft - and that is what I'd like potential copper mech buyers to consider.
    Because copper can have some unique attributes in machining - like heat expansion for example - that the Chinese, in a rush to mass-produce, may ignore... we may find that a good number of copper mechs will describe much like the one below.

    This link is to a ongoing continuity test thread at Calivapers. I've linked this before, for a number of reasons, but mostly because I believe the tester, jkuro, is about as unbiased and well versed as one could possibly hope for in a experimenter, and has provided, without compensation, hours and hours of, accurate, repeatable test data and ancillary information about our beloved mech mods.

    Where I'm going specifically, is to post #405 - made by jkuro regarding his findings of a copper Nemesis clone. I think, before you lay down cash on a copper mech mod, even the relatively small sums associated with clones, you might want to read, and consider.

    There is a reason why genuine mod makers are treading carefully into the copper mod arena. And why those like Bay City Vapor, who make the SurfRider and XXIX mechs, use premium C101 copper.

    Cheers ;-)
  • State O' Flux
    This collection of threads and blog links is intended for those who desire a greater depth of knowledge about mechanical mods, NiMH batteries, rebuildable atomizers, DMMs... electrical theory and it's practical applications in vaping.

    The idea was to provide a broad selection of resources, covering the most popular - and often misunderstood - subjects... all in one location.
    As we don't all drive our best nails with the same hammer - yes, there is a bit of data overlap and redundancy, but the perspectives are unique - and so, what may not be beneficial to one reader, may be valuable to another.

    Lets begin!

    > A coil wire / wraps / resistance spreadsheet. This comes from a thread started by nerak, contributed to by many... then recently turned into a nice spreadsheet, that is continually updated by ancient puffer.
    Not that useful for determining a coil build as much as to see what others are using - please note that resistance can be a bit "trendy" so what was popular a few months ago may not be now.
    Use the "Steam Engine" coil calculator at the bottom of the page to "build" coils on paper... or the internet. You know what I mean. :p

    > Battery max amperage and minimum resistance chart. Credit to Baditude for the making and updating the list in the first place, and to Steam Turbine for taking that list, calculating safe resistance values and making a chart out of it.
    Note that this chart has a wide safety margin... and does not take into account the momentary or pulse rate of a battery (more on that below).
    It's original intent, I suspect was for those who, besides having issues with doing math... are new rebuilding, new to Ohm's Law and new to determining battery amperage limits.
    Those who are "math capable" and battery knowledgeable, may choose to bypass it as being overly cautious. (original thread link for commentary)

    > By Super_X_Drifter - A neat pictorial of how to select wire gauge... this offers a most excellent visual reference for those who have better luck with visual aids.

    > How Kanthal wire works. I wrote this because there is so much misinformation (and utterly ridiculous BS) out there as to why Kanthal wire doesn't short out when building compressed coils. Yes... there is an actual, fact based reason.

    Something I'm leaving in, even though we have Dampmaskin's "Steam Engine" (bottom of page) is a neat, clean & uncluttered Ohm's Law calculator, found at Locust.net.

    > Mech voltage drop testing. This is an ongoing standardized test process by Vape Faction member - jkuro. It gets updated as people drop off or send him mechs for testing. Probably the most accurate & unbiased mech test list you'll see.
    In the real world, unless you're running a 0.1Ω dripper, a few 100ths of a volt difference between mechs is more esoteric than practical... buy what you like and can afford, and you'll be happier than trying to keep up with the "collectors" and ragged edge of zero VD junkies.

    > Understanding batteries. This was recently written buy member TUC, and is one of the best written, most detailed and well researched articles I've ever had the pleasure to read. Do not blow this off... even battery savvy people will enjoy this. There's no such thing as knowing too much, at least when it comes to batteries... so, written from a different perspective... Baditude's blogs on the subject. Part I, Part II and "Basics for mods - IMR or Protected".
    And yet more battery information... from probably the best single source on the interweb... Battery University.

    Scroll down to the 6-22 addendum... for in depth battery test data by @Mooch!!!

    > Kayfun 3.1 & Kayfun Lite user PDF manuals. There are a boatload of Kayfun "clones" out there... and these are the manuals for the original Svoe Mesto Kayfun models. If you have anything Kayfun'ish - from the high end Kebo/UCT Russian to the Kayfun evolutions like the Orchid, Erlkönigin and eXpromizer... to the low end Tobeco Rocket - you might want to look at this. If anyone who reads this is aware of manufacturers PDFs for other attys, shoot me a PM and I'll include them. Gracias. :D

    > Silver conductive grease. I've listed this because there is a good deal of confusion as to what lubricants are conductive and non-conductive... and their appropriate applications. Most products are designed to lubricate and prevent oxidation only... this product does that, and with the high silver content, offers the greatest opportunity of improved conductivity. (the link is to provide product data - it's actually a few $$ cheaper on Amazon)

    >Ohm's Law, and common vaping questions. With this, I'll endeavor to answer a few of the more common Ohm's Law calculation questions, as well as briefly explain momentary or "pulse" amp ratings and how they might effect your calculations. There are a few APV references, but I don't think they'll be too offensive. :laugh:

    > SparkFun (Seriously... that's the name) has a very well done "How to use a digital multimeter" guide. There's nothing in-depth on ECF, and considering the variety of meters and number of generic and model specific guides already on the web, there's no reason for anyone to do so.
    I've reviewed most of this, and it appears to do a good job of it without burying the "DMM n00b" in techno-babble... and you have a choice of written or video.
    The Sparkfun website itself is pretty cool, if you get a chance check it out.

    > How tank type atomizers work. From Kanger, Innokin and Aspire clearos and glassos, to Kayfuns, Squapes, Fogger Vs and Taifun GTs... they all operate on the principals of pressure differential. This was written primarily for new users, to provide a basic understanding of how their clearos/glassos work... but if don't have a clue how your Russian 91% works, have a read. Written by me. :2cool:

    > Addendum 2-17-14:
    A coil calculator, developed by ECF member Dampmaskin and called "Steam Engine" (previously called "vape calc") has become available.
    It includes not only an ohms law calculator, but a coil wrap estimator that includes parameters like ID, target resistance, leg or "tail" length, "heat flux" (coil temperature values), "heat capacity" (coil "lag time"), coil wrap counts... and a battery drain calculator as well.
    IMO, this may prove to be the single most handy link any coil builder can have bookmarked... see 2015 addendum for updated information.

    > Addendum 5-13-14:
    Martin Lorton... a gent who knows a thing or two about meters, has produced a number of DMM reviews and buyers guides. Of particular interest to those looking for a good mid-price DMM... the 4 part series buyers guide UNI-T UT61E.

    >Addendum 8-2-14:
    Coil building fixtures. Yes, you've seen the universal single coil fixtures you can buy... from under $10 for a Tobeco jig, to a good deal more for the Hexacoiler, Danish TotalSteam and QVapes Coiler. They all do the same thing... make it easy to build an assortment of coils in a variety of IDs.
    Update 1-7-15: The "Kuro Koiler", designed by Jon Kuro ('Jkuro' on most forums) is out and available... and it works very well. Not cheap, but a very elegant and clever design, especially if you have a frequently used coil ID.
    For the budget minded, there are now China clones of most of the above fixtures. In fact, FastTech has close to 50 versions/multiples available.

    How about 'specialty' fixtures? Can't buy them... you have to make them. One of the very best RDAs to came out this year, is the Veritas - from "faceless" the maker of the iHybrid line.
    Dual vertical coils and a unique air flow system that is near leak-proof... and allows for filling without any disassembly or DT removal. I got one... and the first thing I found out was that it's not easy to make a nice, single looped wire/dual coil set - on the atomizer.

    Where am I going with all this? A guide to make your own dedicated "pattern duplicate" jig for an atomizer. Not just the Veritas... but any atty you think a custom jig might benefit from. Get creative!


    > Addendum 10-27-14:
    Tech Thing "Half-Ohm" plug-in adapter. What this is, is a converter that you plug into your DMM, allowing you to measure milliohm values quite accurately... for only $20.
    Of course, the level and consistency of that accuracy will depend on the quality of your meter and test leads as well... but considering what a real, 4-wire milliohm meter costs, it's a hell of a deal and can be far more accurate than the usual cheap China ohm meter/build box.
    Speaking of ohm meter/build boxes... if you like them and want a good one without spending $60-$80 - USA Ohm Meters makes one of the most accurate and consistent boxes I've ever used.

    > Addendum 1-7-15: I've written a 2-part users guide for those having trouble understanding some aspects of the Steam Engine coil modelling program - part 1 and Part 2. the latter of which deals exclusively with heat flux and heat capacity.

    Although Dampmaskin has done a wonderful job overall (for my needs, the best complete vapist's calculator made)... I felt a more in depth explanation was required for some users, particularly in the area of tuning wattage or build for a desired heat flux/heat capacity.

    > Addendum 2-17-15:
    For those who're new to mech mods, and are perhaps having an issue with voltage drop (VD), and/or "hot button conditions... "How Mechanical Mods Work" may provide a bit of insight.

    >Addendum 4-2-15:
    I've added several articles, which are extensions of Parts 1 & 2 of the Steam engine modeling program guide... they are:
    "The practical applications of heat flux", "Sub-Ohm... what's the point" and "Optimizing heat flux - chart design"

    Addendum 6-22-15:
    Our resident battery maven... @Mooch, has been busy testing popular batteries, or "cells"... so as to separate them from eGo batteries... including the damaging effects of exceeding "normal" cell temperatures at vapecentric discharge rates.
    Lots of work and devotion has gone into this series... so if you want the latest greatest battery information, take a look at Mooch's blog, and don't forget to say - Thanks Mooch (and thanks to the companies that donate cells for testing)... for the passion, time, out of pocket cash... and effort!!!
    ______________________________

    Just like in part one.... Members that have, of their own accord, spent time producing valuable & practical educational material... for those seeking knowledge and understanding. If you get a chance, somewhere along the line, take a moment to say thank you to them.

    As always, take it for what it is, do with it what you will.

    Ciao...
    sonicbomb likes this.
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